صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

involved order is at once apparent, and certain perversities of style are seen to have had a motive. The system with Ammianus is, of course, not quantitative, as was the prose of Cicero, but accentualpurely so, Professor Clark believes. Between the last two accents of the concluding phrase either two or four unaccented syllables are placed, while one or three seem to be avoided. Thus esse videatur is excluded, but other familiar Ciceronian clausulae are found, e. g. superasse virtute (14.6.10), mittebat ad principem (14.7.10), securius cogitari (14.7. 12). These three distinct cadences agree with Meyer's law, but can one be quite so sure that all consciousness of their original quantitative basis (· | —~—, —~— | ~~ |— —) had been lost? Where a rhythm appears to be lacking the fact is indicated by the use of a dagger. Of course opinions will differ in these cases, as it is entirely possible that the old quantitative clausulae, especially the ditrochaic, may have fallen instinctively from the writer's pen. For example, the passage obelized on p. 63 has Octaviani receptus principis, which in older terms is –

71

[ocr errors]

31

a cadence of the Ciceronian oratory, and the order of words would surely prove a rhythmical intent. Cf. p. 138, Romanorum transitu, 200, expeditiones Parthicas, etc. In many cases the dagger must indicate, not that the rhythm is lacking, but that Meyer's rule fails to cover the particular case. Thus reniteretur, 230, ostendentes, 110, and other sonorous verb-forms, were surely regarded as suitable cadences. It is also difficult to believe that we are to pronounce Persidis, Perside (pp. 307, 310, 312), rather than admit further exceptions to Meyer's law. But these are minutiae, and we may await the appearance of the second volume to clear up all these points which now seem obscure to the uninitiated. No doubt Professor Clark has duly weighed, and deliberately rejected the hypothesis that Ammianus's rhythmical theory was only a partial substitution of the accentual basis for the quantitative.

It is to be hoped that in this new and attractive dress Ammianus may cease to be a mere name to so many teachers of Latin or of Roman history. In spite of his perversion of the Tacitean style, this Greek, admirer of all things Roman, fills a place of his own in the literature of the fourth century. Those who can spare no time for a larger acquaintance will at least find matter of general interest in his characteristic digressions, for example, on manners at Rome (14.6); on the Gauls (15.9, 11-12); the Alps (ib. 10); obelisks (17.4); eclipses (20.3); Egypt and the Nile (22.15-16); artillery (23.4); or his narrative of the visit of Constantius II to Rome (16.10).

[blocks in formation]

From The Nation of October 27 we reprint two letters relating to

THE EXCAVATION OF CYRENE

Some months ago the Ottoman Government granted to the Archaeological Institute of America a firman for the excavation of Cyrene. The project had received the authorization of the Council of the Institute at the meeting in Baltimore in December, 1909; and the prompt issue of the firman seemed to augur well for the undertaking. A preliminary reconnaissance was made in May and June, 1910. This was fruitful in results, and it is expected that within a month the work of excavation will be commenced.

The excavation of Cyrene was proposed by Charles Eliot Norton, the first president of the Institute, among the earliest projects, but until recently conditions have not been favorable. To defray the cost of the work in its earlier stages the sum of fifteen thousand dollars a year for three years has been subscribed or pledged by members of the Institute; one-third of the whole amount was contributed by Mr. James Loeb. The direction of the undertaking was placed in the hands of a commission consisting of Mr. A. V. Armour, New York; Mr. Arthur Fairbanks of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; and Mr. D. G. Hogarth of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. The Commission_appointed Mr. Richard Norton director of the field operations. The commissioners recently met in Paris to pass upon the last questions of policy before the work should commence.

The site of Cyrene lies at the edge of a high plateau in the northern part of the province of Barca, between Tripoli and Egypt. The ruins are covered with soil to only a moderate depth. Since the devastation of the region the site has been protected by its inaccessibility; it has been without permanent inhabitants for centuries. According to all evidence now available, the excavation of few Greek cities might be expected to yield more of value and human interest. Ann Arbor, Mich., October 14.

FRANCIS W. KELSEY.

The expedition undertaken by the Archaeological Institute of America for the excavation of ancient Cyrene has already born fruit in the discovery of important Greek ruins which apparently mark the site of an offshoot from Cyrene itself. When in Bengazi last May, the director of the expedition, Mr. Richard Norton, was informed by Arabs that ruins existed at a place called Messa, not noted on any map. When the party reached Merdj, a guide was procured, who professed to know the way to Messa from Sheriz, a station on the Derna-MerdjBengazi telegraph line. On June 14 the party left Sheriz, following a wooded gorge three miles to the east, then proceeding northeast two miles up hill and four miles farther over rolling country to Messa.

On this site Mr. Norton reports as follows:

"The ruins of Messa lie at the edge of the same plateau as those of Cyrene. The most important spring is in a hollow, surrounded by quantities of square-cut blocks and traces of buildings. The extensive ruins on the high ground west, north, and east of the spring include quarries, in which are many rock-cut tombs, large free-standing sarcophagi and built tombs, and platforms of buildings. Of the two clearly marked roads one leads north to

ward the sea, the second leads eastward toward the Sawiya Beda, the Marabout of Sidi Raffa, and so on to Cyrene, which it enters from the southeast. The distance from Messa to the fountain of Cyrene is about fifteen miles, and for the greater part of the way the road is clearly marked either by tombs and buildings at the sides or by the presence of the actual road bed. There can be no doubt that this was a main highway from Cyrene to the west, and that Messa was an important offshoot of Cyrene. The character of the remains indicates that Messa was a Greek city, and inhabited at least as early as the fourth century B. C."

Messa was visited in 1909 by representatives of the Jewish Territorial Organization, but the published report makes no reference to the nature of the remains. The outline map and the photographs obtained by Mr. Norton, as well as the description already quoted, indicate the importance of the site; and it is to be hoped that the Archaeological Institute may procure the right to excavate it in connection with the work at Cyrene itself. Berlin, October 3.

ARTHUR FAIRBANKS.

It is distinctly worth while at times for us to see classical things through the eyes of those who are not professional students of the Classics. In The Columbia Spectator for October 12 last there is a very interesting report of an interview with Professor C. J. Keyser, of the Department of Mathematics at Columbia, who spent his leave of absence last year in travel in Europe, particularly in Italy and Greece. Part of the interview follows:

To me the most interesting places I visited were Florence, Rome and Athens; of these three Athens was by far the most stimulating. At Athens antiquity seems so near that the visitor feels like saying: "The other day Socrates said so and so", instead of referring to that great philosopher as having lived in the very remote past.

The Acropolis is the most fascinating thing in Athens, and the most wonderful thing there is the Parthenon. As one views this wonderful masterpiece of architecture, he can understand the truth of the saying that the culture of the old world culminated in Greece, that of Greece in Athens, and that of Athens in the Parthenon.

I met a man from Chicago, at the hotel at which I was stopping in Athens, who wished to know why I considered Athens one of the greatest places on earth. He admitted that the ancient Greeks had accomplished much, but expressed the belief that their achievements had been greatly overestimated, and even went so far as to say that he thought they were far behind the times. In reply I said: "You live in Chicago and I live in New York. Bring these two cities together, add Boston, Philadelphia, and as many more cities as you like.

How many

strictly immortal men are there in the whole vast crowd? By immortal I mean those men who still live in literature because of the greatness of their ideas and the perfection of the form in which those ideas were expressed".

My friend from Chicago was of the opinion that there were possibly not more than "several". I then reminded him that in the time of Pericles there were in the population of Athens, no very large city, about a score of strictly immortal men. The Chicagoan, who, by the way, was a publisher, was surprised at this and had no more to say against the "out of date" Athenians.

EXCAVATIONS IN CYPRUS

An interesting piece of recent archaeological news is the announcement that the site of Old Paphos in Cyprus with, probably, the earliest sanctuary of Paphian Aphrodite has been discovered by Dr. K. Koritzky and Dr. M. Ohnefalsch Richter at a place now called Rantidi. In a letter to the London Times of July 27, Dr. Ohnefalsch Richter describes a visit to the spot, to which the attention of the two archaeologists had been called by the discovery of a number of stones inscribed in the Cypriote syllabary. Though they had no time for careful exploration, the discoverers report numerous traces of walls and of large inscribed blocks, enough to show that the site was an important one. Some of the inscriptions from Rantidi which have since been published by Professor Meister, of Leipzig, are dedications to various divinities, and show that even if this was not the early shrine of Paphian Aphrodite, it was the site of an important center of worship. It is reported that organized excavation is to be undertaken by Dr. Zahn in behalf of The Berlin Academy. HARVARD University. GEORGE H. CHASE.

CICERO DE IMPERIO CN. POMPEI 22 None of the editions of this oration notes the fact that the story to which Cicero alludes in the clause, ut ex eodem Ponto Medea illa quondam profugisse dicitur, etc., is not the common version of the legend. At any rate it is not contained in the best known account of the Argonautic expedition, the poem of Apollonius Rhodius. Cicero evidently has in mind the lines of a Roman tragedy which he quotes in the De Nat. Deorum 3.67 (from Accius?, Mayor ad loc.; Pacuvius?, Seeliger, Roscher's Lex. Myth. 2.2488; Ennius?, Schoemann ad loc.).

In Apollonius, the brother in question, Absyrtus, is a full grown man, who leads the pursuit of the Greeks, is invited to an interview by Medea, and treacherously slain by Jason. The story that Cicero uses goes back to Pherecydes (Schol. Apoll., ed. Keil, 4.223, 228). Sophocles in the Colchides seems to have known still another variant. NEWTOWN HIGH SCHOOL.

MAX RADIN.

THE NEW YORK LATIN CLUB Readers of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY are reminded of the notice already given that the first luncheon of The New York Latin Club will be held on Saturday, November 19, at noon, at The Gregorian, in Thirty-Fifth Street, between Fifth Avenue and Herald Square, New York City. The address will be delivered by Dr. Herbert Weir Smyth, Eliot Professor of Greek Literature at Harvard University. For information concerning this and the later luncheons of the year apply to Dr. William F. Tibbetts, Erasmus Hall High School, Brooklyn.

THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by the Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Saturdays, from October to May inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legal or school holiday, at Teachers College, 525 West 120th Street, New York City.

.

All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the literature, the life and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary Treasurer, Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY), are two dollars. Within the territory covered by the Association (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia,) subscription is possible to individuals only through membership. To institutions in this territory the subscription price is one dollar per year.

Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is one dollar per year.

Editor-in-Chief

Gonzalez LoDGE, Teachers College, Columbia University

Managing Editor

CHARLES KNAPP, Barnard College, Columbia University

Associate Editors

ERNST RIESS, Boys' High School, Brooklyn HARRY L. WILSON, Johns Hopkins University

Business Manager

CHARLES KNAPP, Barnard College, New York City

Communications, articles, reviews, queries, etc., should be sent to the editor-in-chief. Inquiries concerning subscriptions and advertising, back numbers or extra numbers, notices of change of address, etc., should be sent to the business manager.

Printed by Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

LOTHMAN'S LATIN LESSONS Based upon the use of grammar from the outset in order to secure a broadened understanding of Latin in succeeding years-this book insures at each step a definite gain in the comprehension of Latin constructions.

A brief outline of the essentials of English grammar, Latin-to-English aud English-to-Latin exercises, a vocabulary taken from Caesar's Commentaries, readings from Caesar and Nepos, and frequent reviews make the book modern and helpful.

GINN AND COMPANY: PUBLISHERS 70 Fifth Avenue New York City

Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 VOL. IV

NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 19, 1910

In The Atlantic Monthly for July last Mr. John Jay Chapman, well-known lawyer and author, contributes a pungent article on Learning which all classical scholars ought to read for the comfort that it contains and all professional educators for its thoroughgoing criticism of the standards and ideals of American education. THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY would like to reprint the article in full but as that is impossible we must be content with a few extracts.

Mr. Chapman maintains primarily that we cannot possibly divorce any element of modern culture from the past. Practically nothing is new under the sun and the business of teaching is to acquaint the "A learner with the body of existing tradition. phrase or an idea", he says, "rises in the Hebrew, and filters through the Greek or Latin and French, down to our own time". What is true of language is true of painting, architecture, religion-everything. "In fact", he continues, "human thought does not advance; it only recurs". He sketches the educational progress of this country and shows that there has been nothing to protect cultural study and that, while our conditions here have produced magnificent types of manhood like Lincoln, Garrison, Emerson, their effect upon general cultivation has been wholly injurious so that, if our present conditions are compared with those of a century ago, there is a distinct loss of culture to be recorded. Το the conditions of our national progress is to be added as a destructive agent the attitude of science. This, Mr. Chapman shows, is entirely unjust but none the less the influence of business and the influence of science are the two great influences hostile to education.

In Europe these influences are qualified by the vigor of the old learning. In America they dominate remorselessly, and make the path of education doubly hard. Consider how they meet us in ordinary social life. We have all heard men bemoan the time they have spent over Latin and Greek, on the ground that these studies did not fit them for business,-as if a thing must be worth less if it can be neither eaten or drunk. It is hard to explain the value of education to men who have forgotten the meaning of education: its symbols convey nothing to them.

The situation is very similar in dealing with scientific men, at least with that large class of them who have little learning and no religion, and who are thus obliged to use the formulae of modern science as their only vehicle of thought. These men regard humanity as something which started up in Darwin's time. They do not listen when the

No. 7

humanities are mentioned; and if they did they would not understand. When Darwin confessed that poetry had no meaning for him, and that nothing significant was left to him in the whole artistic life of the past, he did not know how many of his brethren his words were destined to describe.

We can forgive the business man for the loss of his birthright; he knows no better. But we have it against a scientist if he undervalues education. Surely the Latin classics are as valuable a deposit as the crustacean fossils or the implements of the stone age. When science shall have assumed her true relation to the field of human culture, we shall all be happier. To-day science knows that the silkworm must be fed on the leaves of the mulberry tree, but does not know that the soul of man must be fed on the Bible and the Greek classics. Science knows that a queen bee can be produced by care and feeding, but does not as yet know that every man who has had a little Greek and Latin in his youth belongs to a different species from the ignorant man. No matter how little it may have been, it reclassifies him. There is more kinship between that man and a great scholar than there is between the same man and some one who has had no classics at all; he breathes from a different part of his anatomy. Drop the classics from education? Ask rather, Why not drop education? for the classics are education. We cannot draw a line and say, 'Here we start'. The facts are the other way. We started long ago, and our very life depends upon keeping alive all that we have thought and felt during our history. If the continuity is taken from us, we shall relapse. Mr. Chapman is not, however, despondent as to the outlook. He thinks that there are signs of a literary awakening and that the next generation will show a considerable change but he emphasizes the fact that culture cannot be produced in one generation. "No school-room teaching", he says, "can make a man write good English. No schoolteaching ever made an educated man, or a man who could write a good primary text-book. It requires a home of early culture, supplemented by the whole curriculum of scholarship and university training".

Mr. Chapman goes on to show that the commercial spirit is now dominating all our higher institutions of learning. The present university is merely a business concern and, until the universities see the error of their ways, very little is to be expected. How often do successful men of business say that the college-bred man is a failure in their work. As a matter of fact "the little scraps and snatches of true education which a man now gets at college often embarrass his career". "So", concludes Mr. Chapman, "it is clear that if the colleges persist in the

utilitarian view the higher learning will disappear. It has been disappearing very rapidly and can be restored only by the birth of a new philosophic attitude in our university life". G. L.

JUVENAL AS A HUMORIST

When Professor Gudeman's Latin Poetry of the Empire was issued from the press, I was taking my first cursory glance through the volume, when my attention was caught by this sentence in the preface to the selections from Juvenal: "Not a ray of sunshine illumines his page, not a trace of humor relieves the oppressive gloom". The modified impression I had somehow gathered from my own experience with Juvenal prompted me immediately to place a question-mark in the margin. To that interrogation I have now returned, after a long interim, with the avowed intent to plead extenuation for the poet.

The sweeping assertion which I have quoted from this one text-book is, after all, but a rehearsal of the popular interpretation of Juvenal. We have been taught to regard him as gloomy, despondent, relentlessly morose. Critics speak of his 'earnestness' that 'excludes all play of sportive humor'; of his 'tension of style which is never relaxed'; or of his 'contempt too deep and bitter for a laugh'. To such an extent does this, I was about to say, legend prevail, that one often approaches Juvenal with the predisposed intention of finding him ever and always a very Cimmerian, 'shrouded in mist and gloom'.

To regard Juvenal as a confirmed Jeremiah seems to me unjust and exaggerated. While satire does overwhelmingly prevail as his ultimate end, while his general tenor is that of grim sarcasm, I yet find in him much that is genuinely humorous. His text may be facit indignatio versus, but he does not disdain to intersperse his invective with many a laughable joke and anecdote. A pleasantry brings a smile to the face every now and then, in spite of all his mighty rancour. A digest of his lines has convinced me that Juvenal was not ignorant of the important principle that satire, without humor to vary the monotone of its bitterness, often fails of its highest potency, and that human nature instinctively flies from the perpetual scold. I can not believe that the populace of Rome differed in this respect from the people of to-day. 'Run, run, he has hay on his horn', was the very cry which Horace had long before eloquently deprecated.

I am not pleading for the merry pleasantry which makes of Horace a boon companion. We can not make a Horace out of Juvenal if we would. But granting that his humor, wherever it does occur, is what has been fittingly termed 'grim', it is humor nevertheless. The presence of humor in any de

gree is quite different from saying, "Not a trace of humor relieves the oppressive gloom".

There is no doubt in my mind that many of Juvenal's lines, in which we are taught to find so much satire, may have been robbed of their sting by some facial expression or a certain gesticulation as he read them. If such lines are to be read with a scowl on the face and a menace in the voice, without an occasional relaxation of either, nothing but venom can be found in them. But why picture Juvenal always thus? May we not imagine sometimes a twinkle in the eye, a smile about the corners of the mouth, a mock grimace, a funny gesture, a ludicrous posture? I fancy I can detect many passages where the words, unaided by any such accompaniment, seem bitter enough, but where some pantomimic accompaniment would materially soften the meaning into humor.

And then again, the great gulf in time and custom that separates the twentieth century from the days when Juvenal wrote, has much to do with our interpretation of his composition. We have lost the meaning of many a reference to current events and contemporary people. Doubtless we have misconstrued many verses where we have vainly congratulated ourselves on finding the true explanation. Could we but be transported back to the Rome of Juvenal and become his own hearers, we should surely rewrite many a note in our text-books and emend countless statements in our commentaries. We should allow the poet to take possession of us when we read his lines. We must shut out the present age and, if possible, get beneath the life and implication of the text. A mere grammarian should hesitate to pass ultimate judgment upon the meaning of certain passages, for that is not his province. It is the one that can place himself in Juvenal's stead or imagine himself one of his audience, who alone can approximate a right understanding of his poems.

A rapid citation of selected passages from the Satires themselves is perhaps the most effective way to illustrate their humor. Several Satires, e. g. 4 and 16, are almost wholly humorous sketches; but, not to become tiresome, I shall content myself with making excerpts from only those Satires which Professor Gudeman has happily selected for his volume, 1, 3, 7, 10, 14. And, while heartily appreciating my own inability adequately to interpret Juvenal, I am yet willing to essay the effort, at the same time risking a dangerous experiment-the occasional substitution of modern names and similar anachronisms, in the hope that, by the light of our own vernacular, we may approach more nearly the poet's real intent.

The very words with which Juvenal introduces himself must have been humorous to his Roman audience. Here, at the very outset, good omen for

« السابقةمتابعة »