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So the grove may be all bloodless, free from wild

game's dying moan,

And may deck its shadowed verdure with sweet blossoms newly blown.

Fain would she invite thee also, could she swerve thy constancy;

Fain would she thou camest, Virgin, if it so beseemeth thee.

Then three nights wouldst thou behold here bands of revelling chorus maids

Mid the gathered throng go trooping through thy dim lit forest glades.

Wreathed are they with crowns of blossoms; in their myrtle bowers they rest:

Present too are Ceres, Bacchus, and the God who poets blessed.

Lengthen every sweet night hour! Vigil keep with erry song!

In the forest reign Dione! Delia, flee this revel throng".

Love tomorrow who has ne'er loved; who has loved, tomorrow love.

Then the Goddess gave her mandate: "Place my throne mid Hybla's flowers".

There surrounded by the Graces, she, High Priestess, wields her powers.

Hybla, lavish all thy blossoms, all that the teeming year doth yield:

Hybla, don thy flowery garment culled from Aetna's spacious field.

Here will gather rustic maidens; maids of the mountain gather here;

All, whoever bide in forests, shady groves, or fountains clear.

She has summoned all before her, Mother of the Winged God,

Charging maidens ne'er in Love trust, when Love strolls unarmed abroad.

Love tomorrow who has ne'er loved; who has loved, tomorrow love.

See! beneath the bending broom plant bulls with mighty flanks recline;

There in quietness each basks in mated union with the kine.

Thick fleeced rams in shady pastures stroll with bleating flocks along:

Carolling birds the Goddess charges ne'er to still their clear voiced song.

Now the honking swans make echo every marsh with raucous cries;

While 'neath shade of spreading poplar nightingales make melodies.

One would think love's tenderest promptings from their tuneful throats are sung,

Nor believe them there lamenting Tereus' victim fair and young.

Love tomorrow, who has ne'er loved; who has loved, tomorrow love.

They are singing. I am silent. When will come life's Spring for me?

When shall I, like twittering swallow, cease from taciturnity?

I have lost my muse by silence: Phoebus looks

on me no more:

Silence thus destroyed Amyclae hiding the approach of war.

Love tomorrow, who has ne'er loved; who has loved, tomorrow love. B. W. MITCHELL.

REVIEW

Plato's Doctrine of Ideas. By J. A. Stewart, White's Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Oxford: The Clarendon Press (1909). Those who are acquainted with Professor Stewart's recent (1905) book on the Myths of Plato will be prepared for the treatment of the Platonic Ideas followed in this study. In many of the discussions and in many obiter dicta in his former work the author's own philosophical stand-point and his interpretation of the Platonic philosophy were indicated and in his pages on Kant's Categories of the Understanding as well as in his "defense of Plato against a charge brought against him by Kant", his conception of the elon of Plato as functions of the understanding and modes of thought is made clear. He then states it as his belief that the Kantian distinction between Categories of the Understanding and Ideas of Reason is at least implicit in the Platonic doctrine and in his definition of the Platonic myths as "Dreams expressive of Transcendental Feeling told in such a manner and such a context that the telling of them regulates for the service of conduct and science the feeling expressed" the central thought of the second part of the later book is anticipated. In his later book there is a twofold discussion, first, of the Ideas as a contribution to methodology and, second, as an expression of aesthetic experience. Compare pages 347 ff. of his Myths of Plato.

In the first discussion Professor Stewart has much in common with Natorp's method of treating the Platonic Idea. Professor Stewart, however, finds Natorp in error in making the Phaedrus the first dialogue in which the Doctrine of Ideas is definitely dealt with, and maintains that this doctrine on its logical side is developed in the earliest or 'Socratic' group. Although greatly extended and enriched in later dialogues, the Platonic Idea, in Professor Stewart's view, is found in the Charmides, in the Laches, in truth "wherever there is scientific explanation, wherever context is thought out". He finds that the advance which Plato's thought makes beyond the method of Socrates is that the concept is no longer made to depend on the particulars observed, but is to be regarded as part of the system which includes it. This sort of independence is meant by

the τὸ χωριστὴν εἶναι which has given rise to such endless discussion. The problem of knowledge, then, does not first appear in the Meno, to be continued in the Cratylus, finally to reach the Ideal Theory in the great dialogues of the first Platonic group, but is under consideration from the first. In his development of this conception of the Ideal Theory Professor Stewart's language shows the influence of present-day philosophical discussions and he does not hesitate to call Plato's "eternal truths" "pragmatic postulates". So, regarding the Ideas in Plato on their methodological side as the points of view from which a man of science regards his data, as Laws of Nature, as instruments of thought constructed by the mind to serve the purposes of human life, Professor Stewart explains the much-vexed terms μίμησις, παράδειγμα, μέθεξις. παρουσία, used of the relation of object to idea, as different ways of saying the same thing, not as significant of a change in Plato's doctrine of the relation between Idea and Particular. He maintains that Aristotle, while grossly misunderstanding and misstating Plato's Doctrine of Ideas, nevertheless opposes to that doctrine a Doctrine of Laws, not of concrete or quasi-concrete Thingswhich is practically identical with Plato's doctrine rightly understood. And further after making Plato an Aristotelian-if rightly understood-Professor Stewart also holds that Plato represented the Pragmatism of his day as opposed to the stiff Intellectualism of the eidlov φίλοι. It must be said that the Pragmatists themselves are slow to recognize Plato as one of their own. For example, F. C. S. Schiller in his Plato or Protagoras (1908) says "Plato, doubtless, would never have admitted that such mere instruments of knowing were true 'Ideas'. Hence though we may be glad that he has expressed for all time the perfect exemplar of the rationalistic temper, we cannot in these days imitate his superb fidelity to an impracticable ideal".

The task of reconciling Plato's own language in describing the Ideas with the conception of them set forth in the first part of this book Professor Stewart essays in the second part, that devoted to the Ideas as expressing aesthetic experience, avowedly the most difficult part of his argument. Hence he emphasizes still more strongly the statement already made in the earlier part that Plato-scholars of today and Plato's greatest pupil have alike erred through neglect of the "double Experience" to which Plato gave expression in the Doctrine of Ideas. In this part the Platonic Idea is considered as an object of contemplation, sharply distinguished by Professor Stewart from the Idea as an instrument of thought. This involves a most interesting discussion of the psychology of aesthetic experience with reference to Plato's ecstatic conception of the Idea, which led him to speak of it as selfexistent, thus confusing Aristotle and all succeed

ing generations as to his true conception. The author argues that Plato, while devoting whole dialogues to showing that science is impossible if the separation between sense-object and concept is insisted upon, yet is always falling into phrases in which he seems to insist upon it, because of the contamination of his experience of discourse by that of aesthetic contemplation. This contamination Professor Stewart admits is the thing that accounts for the vitality and perennial charm of the Platonic Ideas. "It is not by his logician's faculty of connected discourse, extraordinary as that is, but by his seer's power of fixed contemplation that Plato has been and still is a living influence".

This psychological interpretation of Plato, interesting and suggestive as it is, yet is open to the charge of reading into Plato the results of modern thought. In this connection a foot-note on page 109 seems significant. "Literal interpretation of Plato's Greek may seem to be against Lotze's view; but psychological interpretation, I feel sure, will eventually establish it". It seems, however, that to appeal from Plato's Greek to modern psychological interpretation involves its own dangers.

The book is written with all the charm of style that characterizes the author's Myths of Plato and is informed and enriched by his philosophical and psychological interests and his deep culture in the "litterae humaniores". It is indeed one of the most suggestive and stimulating books that have appeared on the Platonic Ideas. VASSAR COLLEGE.

GRACE HARRIET MACURDY.

SUMMARIES

The following extracts of notices of recent works of interest to readers of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY are taken from the first ten numbers of the current volume of The New York Nation.

(1) Six Greek Sculptors, by E. A. Gardner (Scribners). These are Myron, Phidias, Polyclitus, Praxiteles, Scopas, and Lysippus. There is a preliminary chapter on archaic sculpture, and a final on the Hellenistic period. The essay on the style of Scopas, the initiator of the pathetic tendency, is particularly valuable, though the conclusions are tentative. These studies of style make for a more discriminating appreciation of the qualities of Greek Yet the book has a number of unaccountable omissions, and it would seem from them that the manuscript was completed a matter of three years ago, and not subsequently revised.

art.

(2) Scripta Minoa; the written documents of Minoan Crete, with special reference to the archives of Knossos, by Arthur J. Evans (Volume I, with xiv +302 pages, 13 plates and many illustrations in the text. $12.75). This is a book of high im portance, the careful record of a considerable part of the extraordinarily able archaeological work

which has placed Dr. Evans in the front rank of really great discoverers. The whole work is planned in three volumes; the first includes the hieroglyphic and primitive linear classes of writing, together with some general discussion of pre-Phoenician scripts; the second and third will be given to a detailed publication of the documents of the advanced linear scripts. The whole will therefore constitute a corpus of the early Cretan written documents.

In Part i Dr. Evans discusses the antiquity and diffusion of pictographs and linear signs in Europe, the discovery and nature of each of the types of Minoan writing, and the survivals of the art of writing as the different phases of Cretan civilization passed away. Part ii is a study of the so-called Disc from Phaestos, discovered by Dr. Pernier of the Italian Mission in 1908.

(3) Addresses and Essays, by Morris H. Morgan (American Book Co. $1.50). This book was issued only a few days before the gifted author's death, and is a valuable memorial of him. All but the first article had already appeared in print, but the collection is none the less desirable. Taken together they suggest a definition of what philology is when rightly understood; all are distinguished by a firm and aristocratic style; in the Greek and Latin verses at the end of the volume there is a real poetic quality, especially in the beautiful threnody on Professor Child.

(4) Die Etruskische Bronzeleber von Piacenza, by Frau von Bartels (Berlin: Springer). A new interpretation of the famous bronze liver of Piacenza found thirty years ago. Passing from one part of the object to another, the author comes to the conclusion that it is a reproduction of the Etruscan cosmological system. The monograph must be read carefully in order to obtain a definite view of the theory propounded.

(5) Dionysius of Halicarnassus on Literary Composition, text, introduction and translation, by W. Rhys Roberts (Macmillan. $3.00). This volume for the first times makes fully available for a reader who knows the elements of the language, whether a Grecian or not, the most important work of one who is classed by Jebb as the best literary critic of antiquity and to whom Saintsbury assigns no mean rank as a critic without limitation of time. He ranks with Aristotle on Poetics and the anonymous author of On the Sublime (of which Roberts has brought out a second edition). The editor shows admirable technical scholarship, breadth of view and literary skill in the difficult task of translation. In the notes is abundant illustration from modern authors. There is a copious glossary, useful even for specialists in rhetoric, grammar, prosody, phonetics or music; three appendices, of which the second on word-order is very forceful, and a double index conclude the volume.

(6) Acharnians of Aristophanes, text and translation with commentaries, by B. B. Rogers (Macmillan. $3.25). The Knights (by the same author and publisher $3.25). The translations are vigorous and on the whole superior to Frere's. The varying meters of the Greek are rendered by correspondingly varying meters in the English. The six-stress lines of the dialogue portions of the Greek are rendered into the more agreeable five-stress lines in the English. Not only is the translation worthy of praise, but the puns are excellently well reproduced, particularly in the Acharnians, where Scotch and Irish serve for the translator to reproduce the broad Megarian and Doric dialects.

(7) On page 142 of The Nation is a letter to the editor from Professor W. C. Lawton, of Scranton, entitled A Friendly Warning to Classicists, which might well have appeared in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY, and is well calculated to prod many a sleepy teacher. On page 183 is a letter from Professor Goodell of Yale on Greece Revisited, particularly interesting in the discussion of Greek politics and forestry conservation.

(8) Accidents of an Antiquary's Life, by D. G. Hogarth (Macmillan. $2.50). Many readers of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY recall having heard Mr. Hogarth speak in this country several years ago on his great work for the British Museum at Ephesus. The personal and romantic tone coloring of this book makes it charming reading. His teacher was the great topographical student of Asia Minor, William Ramsay. He tells of his work in Lydia, Lycia and Phrygia, of his excavations at Ephesus, and how, happening in 1900 to be a war-correspondent in Crete, he searched for the Dictean Cave, and near the modern Psychró he came with his Greek boys and girls upon a cave in whose recesses he found stalactites with copper articles deeply encrusted, but so numerous that they could at one time be extracted at the rate of one a minute. He has much to say also about archaeological work in Cyrene. He is good reading for anybody.

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Latin Prose Exercises for Second Year Work By Elizabeth Mc Jimsey Tyng. New York: Longmans, Gree, and Company. Pp. XI + 132.

Six Greek Sculptors. By Ernest A. Gardner. Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.00.

Lucretius on the Nature of Things Translated by Cyril Bailey. Oxford Library of Translations. Oxford University Press. $1.00 net. The Aeneid of Virgil. Translated by John Conington (cheap reprint). New York: The Macmillan Co. 12 mo $.25.

The Metamorphoses or Golden Ass of Apuleius of Medaura. Translated by H. E. Butler. Oxford Library of Translations. Oxford University Press. 2 vols. $2.00 net.

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THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by the Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Saturdays, from October to May inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legal or school holiday, at Teachers College, 525 West 120th Street, New York City.

All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the literature, the life and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary-Treasurer, Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY), are two dollars. Within the territory covered by the Association (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia,) subscription is possible to individuals only through membership. To institutions in this territory the subscription price is one dollar per year.

Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is one dollar per year.

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UNDER THE NEW LATIN REQUIREMENTS adopted by the College Entrance Examination Board, April 16, 1910, schools shall select material not less in amount than the Gallic War, Books IIV, from the Gallic and Civil Wars and Nepos's Lives MATHER'S CAESAR-Episodes from the Gallic and Civil Wars ($1.25) presents the most interesting and important parts of both works. Already adopted by Hotchkiss and other prominent secondary schools. LINDSAY'S NEPOSTwenty-five Lives ($1.10). For several years the standard edition. Unusually full and helpful notes, complete vocabulary and English-Latin exercises AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY Cincinnati

New York

Chicago

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Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 VOL. IV NEW YORK, OCTOBER 22, 1910

Teachers of the Classics who have been for years striving by means of their work to develop the minds of the students under their influence and instil into them habits of exact and continuous study have understood fully the fallacy of the elective system and the immeasurable damage done to the cause of pure culture by the work of ex-President Eliot of Harvard University. Since Professor Lowell has been attempting to remedy in part the mischief done by Harvard's forty years of perversity, we teachers of the Classics have not solaced ourselves with the time-honored 'I told you so', but have rather looked seriously to the future with the hope that, after all, the pendulum had not swung too far in the wrong direction. This sentiment is well voiced by Professor J. Irving Manatt of Brown University, who, in an article in the May number of The American College, addresses a plea to the students of Brown University for the conservation of the Classics. Leaving out the sentences of rather far-fetched humor with which Professor Manatt enlivens his words, I quote the following:

Every educated man is, willy nilly, a trustee of the world's accumulated culture. If this treasure of the race be bartered for a mess of pottage, every man in this company must share the responsibility; and I pray you not to shirk it. Here, elsewhere, we want directors who direct; watchmen who keep awake. You know as well as I do how the intellectual and spiritual climate has changed in our time; how our seats of learning have become seats of everything but learning; how (as President Lowell puts it) "Athletics has beaten scholarship out of sight". President Eliot began his long administration by claiming for the Harvard degree "nothing less than four years devoted to liberal culture"; he closed it as the advocate of a three years' course which might include such broad and liberal studies as coal mining, ore dressing, foundry practice and blacksmithing! Specialization making sharp men and dissipation making shallow had run full course not at Harvard only, but in the college world at large; and it was high time for Mr. Lowell's new policy-"to develop the best allround men in the United States". He has begun well by scotching the hydra that beset the springsthe myriad-headed monstrosity dubbed free election which really spells free damnation. But it remains to be seen whether even a Harvard president can graft a backbone into a jellyfish; whether anything short of knife and cautery can save the game.

ones

Right here at the turn of the road is the real educator's opportunity and obligation. We want a

No. 4

revaluation of studies in a larger view of the end of all study, which is the making of all-round men. And we need not be surprised if it be found that these man-making studies are, in the main, just the good old humanities, with their source and centre in Greek, but radiating out (as all Greek things do) into manifold developments of sweetness and light and power. The last man you would take for a laudator temporis acti is our own Andrews; and he declares that "no modern community can, as a community, dispense with Greek studies except as it elects to be barbaric". That

is a judgment worth weighing and history sustains it. We cannot with impunity drop Greek out of our national culture. That has been done more than once in history and always with disastrous

consequences.

The plea has been made so often that its iteration sometimes seems to be wearisome and, as far as Greek is concerned, I very much fear that Greek has been dropped out of our national culture. Fortunately the power of Greek culture does not depend entirely upon the persistence of Greek studies. The torch of learning was carried through the revival of learning without any serious knowledge of Greek. The previous centuries of education, whatever education was, were largely Greek in foundation but Greek through Latin forms and the advocates of classical culture need not despair completely because Greek has vanished from the preparatory school. If the teachers of Latin do their duty, Greek influence will not have vanished and meanwhile there will be the chosen few who have continued to draw their inspiration immediately from the fountains. I do not mean that Latin is a form of Greek culture. Some teachers of Greek have been inclined to scorn Latin on this ground but, whatever may be said to the contrary, Greek has been preserved to the modern world by means of Latin and the spirit of Greek need not fail so long as Latin remains vigorous. If, therefore, the teachers of Greek are alive to the situation, they will champion the cause of Latin and strengthen it wherever they can, for he that helps the cause of Latin aids the persistence of Greek influence. G. L.

THE PRESENT STATUS OF LATIN TEXT
CRITICISM

Criticism of the text of an author, ancient or modern, is of course the first step that scholars must take before they can begin their detailed study

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