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things that are worth while, and rigorously cutting off the non-essentials. Prose composition must be reduced to the absolute minimum requisite for gaining the power to read, and the time saved must be utilized for wider reading, and deeper study of Roman history, life, and thought. Brief books like this can do a real service, if only it be not insisted that in place of one large composition-book discarded, two, three, or four smaller books be substituted.
ARCHIBALD LIVINGSTON HODGES.
WADLEIGH HIGH SCHOOL, NEW YORK CITY.
Crete, the Forerunner of Greece. By C. H. and H. B. Hawes. With a Preface by A. J. Evans. New York: Harper and Brothers (1910). 75 cents, net. Older by a year than Mr. Baikie's The Sea-Kings of Crete, reviewed in 4.158-159, is the valuable sketch given by Mr. and Mrs. Hawes, condensed into 150 small octavo pages of a pocket-volume which is one of the series of Harper's Library of Living Thought. The short preface is from the hand of the most famous of Cretan archaeologists, Dr. A. J. Evans, the excavator of the palace at Knossos. The authors, availing themselves of their own intimate knowledge of the Crete of today, have written not only for the general reader but also for the traveller in Crete. Although their language at times smacks of the guide-book, the literary flavor is never lost. Collaboration has not prevented a fresh, vigorous English style. Mrs. Hawes has not only travelled extensively through the island but has carried out important excavations herself. The results of her work at Gournia, where she uncovered "the most perfect Minoan town yet discovered”, a veritable prehistoric Pompeii, have been scientifically published in a magnificent volume entitled Gournia, Vasiliki, and other Prehistoric Sites on the Isthmus of Hierapetra, Crete. Much in the present account is an abbreviation of this larger work. Mr. Hawes is responsible for the anthropological side of the story. “By his anthropometric researches into both the ancient and modern inhabitants of Crete", to quote from Dr. Evans's Preface, he "has made far and away the most important contributions to our knowledge of their ethnic divisions and physical characteristics that have yet appeared".
A Chronological Table precedes the Introduction, which is devoted to the life and work of Schliemann, the myths connected with Crete, and a list of Cretan excavations and excavators. The "Minoan Periods" are next explained and their dates discussed. Before the various sites are described, the authors reconstruct for our imagination the appearance of the oldest inhabitants, their physical characteristics and their dress, with the homes in which they lived and the industries by which they lived. Then the present condition of their homes is described site by site. The concluding chapters deal with Minoan
Art, Letters, and Religion and the connections between Crete and the mainland of Greece.
In so introductory and popular a book mere plans of palaces are not sufficient. Illustrations of the monuments are essential. Minoan finds have been so unique and startling that the mind can form only a dim picture of the Minoan age without visual assistance. If, however, the reader's interest be kindled, he may search out some of the more scientific works named in the Bibliography or even start for Crete with this volume in his pocket. In this capacity the book may perform its greatest service to Cretan archaeology.
In ancient art it is noticeable how frequently the lion is represented as making his attack standing erect on his hind legs. Besides the Mycenaean sword blade and entaglio discovered by Schliemann (cf. Illustr. 227 and 177 in Schuchhart-Sellers), see the Assyrian relief preserved in the British Museum, which represents Assur-Bani-Pal stabbing a lion (cf. History of Sculpture by Marquand and Frothingham, p. 46), the central group on the silver patera from Curium, Cyprus, in the Cesnola collection, New York (cf. Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Phoenicia and Cyprus, 2. fig. 276, and Springer-Michaelis, History of Art', fig. 142), and especially the Babylonian cylinder in Springer-Michaelis (fig. 112). This attitude is clearly described by Theodore Roosevelt in African Game Trails (p. 66): “as he [Slatter] rose to his feet he saw the lion overtake the fleeing man, rise on his hind legs like a rearing horse-not springing-and strike down the fugitive". It is the attitude of the lion rampant in heraldic art. The New International Encyclopaedia (9.322) says: "The earliest attitude of the heraldic lion is rampant, erect on his hind legs, and looking before him, the head being shown in profile, as he appears in the arms of Scotland and originally did in those of England". Pliny, in his account of the lion (H. N. 8. ch. 16), does not speak of this attitude as The Century Dictionary might lead one to suppose, which cites (s. v. Rampant) this passage from Holland's translation: "When he chaseth and followeth after other beasts, hee goeth alwaies saltant or rampant, which he never useth to do when he is chased in sight, but is only passant". This passage was clearly written under presupposition of heraldic lore, for Pliny merely wrote: Dum sequitur, insilit saltu, quo in fuga non utitur.
II. THE WOUNDED LIONESS FROM KOUYUNYIK Among the wonderful Assyrian relief sculptures in the British Museum there is one of a wounded lioness, in the so-called Lion Room of Assur-BaniPal, which has been particularly admired for its realistic truth. Perrot and Chipiez (History of Art
in Chaldaea and Assyria 2.156; cf. Tarbell, History of Greek Art, 44) describe this as follows:
One of three arrows that have reached her has transfixed the spinal column at the loins. All the hinder part of the body is paralysed. The hind feet drag helplessly on the ground, while the poor animal still manages for a moment to support herself on her forepaws. She still faces the enemy, her half opened jaws are at once agonized and menacing, and, as we gaze upon her, we can almost fancy that we hear her last groan issue from her dying lips.
A remarkable duplicate of this phenomenon and better description is furnished by Theodore Roosevelt in African Game Trails (p. 73):
Thirty yards off, there appeared the tawny, galloping form of a big maneless lion . . my third bullet went through the spine and forward into his chest. Down he came, sixty yards off, his hind quarters dragging, his head up, his ears back, his jaws open and lips drawn up in a prodigious snarl, as he endeavored to turn to face us. His back was broken. . . .
This might indeed, with slight modifications, serve as an official description of the lioness slain by the Assyrian monarch in the seventh century B. C. HAMILTON COLLEGE. HERMAN LOUIS EBELING.
I write to express my delight in the interesting and timely article The Classics and the Country Boy or Girl, in the CLASSICAL WEEKLY 4.122-127. I should almost think Miss Goodale had me in mind when she wrote the paper, although I did not come from Maine. It certainly applies to all those boys and girls who come from the north country, with whom she seems to be so familiar. For twenty-five years, as a publisher of a large amount of Latin and a little Greek, and working a little in the general field of science, I have watched the trend and seen the ebb and flow. Twenty years ago, Charles Francis Adams began his attack on Greek as being a fetish, and, since that time, Greek—and, in a lesser degree, Latin -has been what Miss Goodale so well calls "an intellectual punching-bag", which so many orators who address a body of teachers, or business men, like to hit, feeling that they are sure to hear a responsive echo. In looking back over my own school life there are two things that stand out very prominently and are never to be forgotten. The first was my sudden realization of the fact that one could not get much hold upon technical English grammar until he had studied Latin; the other was the sudden dawning upon me, one day, of what poetry meant when I first read the Archias and the Iliad. Give me the first one hundred pages of the arithmetic and I would not exchange my limited knowledge of Latin and Greek for almost the field of science as it has opened up to me. In all seriousness, I would not
1 The name of the writer is, with his consent, not given. Another publisher had written more briefly, but none the less warmly, in commendation of Miss Goodale's paper. C. K.
give up the Archias for the dry bones of Natural Philosophy, as it was then called, that was set before me.
I can assure you, a reaction has come, and the best educators are seeing that the Classics and science may go hand in hand. A prominent instructor in physics or chemistry, in one of our colleges was quoted to me, the other day, as having said that he could tell in a very few recitations the students in his classes who had had Latin, and that, as a rule, they were doing the best work.
I believe that a far greater number of the teachers of the country, as well as educated business men, are in accord with Miss Goodale than one at first imagines. It is a favorite subject with me, and, as I talk it over with other business men, from time to time—especially those who are in the same line of work as I am-I find that a large majority agree with my position. I fear that too often the friends of the Classics have had the feeling that the battle was going against them, and they were, consequently, timid. The Classics are hit by everybody who has other schemes, and, too often, their real place in the curriculum is not recognized. If the friends of the Classics will keep up the fight for a few years longer, I believe we shall see a radical and welcome change.
THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE
The annual meeting of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States will be held at Princeton University on Friday and Saturday, April 21-22. There will be a session on Friday afternoon, beginning about 2.30. At 6.30 on Friday there will be a dinner at the Princeton Inn, at $1.00 per plate. At this dinner speeches will be made by President Patton, Dean Andrew F. West, Professor J. C. Rolfe of the University of Pennsylvania, and Professor E. D. Perry of Columbia University. In the evening there will be an address by Professor John H. Westcott of Princeton University, on The Roman Wall in Britain. On Saturday at 1.30 a luncheon will be given by Princeton University to the members of the Association and visitors.
Papers will be presented by Professor Charles E. Bennett of Cornell University, Professor G. L. Hendrickson of Yale University, Professor G. M. Whicher of Normal College, New York City, Professor D. M. Robinson of Johns Hopkins University, Miss Anna Pearl Macvay of the Wadleigh High School, New York City, and others.
Circulars giving complete programme of the meeting, and various items of interest relating to the dinner, the luncheon, rooms, etc., will be issued to all members about April 1.
The Secretary will be glad to receive from the members names of persons to whom programmes may be sent.
THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Saturdays, from October to May inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legal ⚫r school holiday, at Teachers College, 525 West 120th Street, New York City.
All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the literature, the life and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary-Treasurer, Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY), are two dollars. Within the territory covered by the Association (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia) subscription is possible to individuals only through membership. To institutions in this territory the subscription price is one dollar per year.
Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is one dollar per year.
A handy and useful pamphlet for High School classes,
15 cents (stamps not accepted). Address the author. A. C. Richardson, 49 Fargo Ave., Buffalo, N.Y.
Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 VOL. IV
NEW YORK, APRIL 1, 1911
Messrs. Ginn and Co. have just published a little book entitled Live Issues in Classical Study, by Professor Karl P. Harrington (76 pages). Of the four essays contained in the volume, Dry Bones and Living Spirit (3-36), A Fair Chance for the Classics (37-54), The Latinity Fetish (55-65), The Use of Translations (66-76), the second and the third had been previously published, the former in the Southern Methodist Review, the latter in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY (1. 138-141).
In the first essay, after the introductory remarks, Professor Harrington insists that the classical teachers of the country must themselves ceaselessly be champions of classical interests, in greater degree than has been the case in the past. Again, if new life is to be infused into the dry bones, the infusion is to come first of all from improved pedagogical methods. Archaeology, the lantern, courses in ancient politics, law, private religion, art, etc., less dry grammar, more emphasis on the ability to read the language and to master it for general purposes of pleasure and profit-all these things will help. Comparisons between ancient and modern life will vivify the ancient history and teach the meaning of tendencies in modern times. The scope of the literature studied should be greatly broadened. This last thought is elaborated in the essay on The Latinity Fetish. Finally, apologies for the Classics should give way to an aggressive campaign for them, to a vigorous insistence upon their supreme value.
On pages 16-20 there are some good words on the impossibility of getting through translations the best that Greek and Latin literature have to give. Then come, on pages 20-35, some exceptionally good illustrations of the extent to which things Greek and Roman have entered into the warp and woof of English literature.
In the second essay, A Fair Chance for the Classics, Professor Harrington pleads for better equipment for the teaching of the Classics.
Do scientific men among us warm with enthusiasm over the steady improvements in methods of classical study, and over its recent achievements? Or
do they look upon Latin and Greek as useless remnants of a waning educational system, the mere exercise ground for idle mental gymnastics, and hope to see them soon give way to something more closely connected with the knowledge and subjugation of the physical world, to which so large a part of the attention of the age is already devoted? Do men of wealth most readily lavish their millions
upon classical equipments, or upon the training schools for developing scientific methods of acquiring other millions?
On pages 39 ff. our author takes up various criticisms of classical study and teaching. To the oft repeated injunction that the approaches to classical study should not be made forbidding he answers that the approaches to all subjects of real value are forbidding, inevitably so. To the charge that the methods of instruction in Classics are "picayune, pedantic, behind the times", he replies that failures of classical teachers have been largely due to the circumstances which have attended their labors and to the crudeness of the material with which they have to deal.
The scarcity of opportunities for teachers to learn their art, and for pupils to get their preparation; the absurd multiplicity of poorly endowed colleges and "universities"; and the killing burden of classroom and routine work demanded of classical teachers, these causes have long combined in America to retard progress in the methods of instruction and to crush out enthusiastic ambition toward the best ideals.
But much progress has been made.
If anything has marked the efforts of classical instructors within recent years, it has been the enthusiasm with which they have endeavored to impress upon their students the spirit of the authors before their consideration, and to reproduce the picture of ancient life as vividly as possible. From every quarter the cry has been heard, "Read, read, read!" And they have read, often pushing on with undiminished speed through regions of grammatical difficulty, without pausing to examine very closely the details of the ground, in their eagerness to explore the unknown and to discern new poetical, historical, or philosophical beauties.
On pages 43-45 Mr. Harrington meets the charge that classical study is barren of results. On pages 45-47 he insists that a classical education is a 'practical' education.
The Classics, then, deserve a fair chance. How are they to get it? First, more time and patience should be allotted to the early stages of classical study, that secure foundations may be laid. Harrington hopes to see a preparatory course in Latin of six years.
Secondly, the Classics need a material equipment and financial support commensurate with that offered to scientific schools and investigations.
The old-fashioned idea of a school was that of a bench with a pupil upon it, a desk with a teacher behind it, and a textbook, which the pupil studied
and then handed to the teacher, who heard him recite. The laboratories, museums, and apparatus of the present indicate how entirely that conception has been banished from the world of science and the teaching of science; but how many people seem to imagine that the equipment of the olden days is still good enough for the classics,-that there is no special need of any modern workshop or first class tools. In comparison with the technical schools, the magnificent buildings, the extensive appliances, for scientific investigation, the opportunities for doing good work in the classics are yet meager. How rarely do we find adequate special buildings, libraries, and collections representing the art, architecture, antiquities, epigraphy, paleography, of the ancient world! How many institutions place before their students the current literature on classical subjects? How many really first-class classical libraries are there in the United States? How many thoroughly satisfactory archaeological museums do we find?
Finally, the Classics in America need enthusiastic support on the part of pupils, of parents, and of the public (52-54).
The last essay, on The Use of Translations, deals with the extent to which translations are used by students, the attitude of instructors toward the practice, the remedies employed in various places to discourage the use of translations, the real evils of the custom, and finally presents some suggestions as remedies for the situation. In this discussion there is, unhappily, nothing new.
One rather regrets that, in an effort apparently to be vivacious and forceful, in the desire to see to it that the discussion of Live Issues in Classical Study shall itself not consist of dry bones, the author quite often fails to show in his language that restraint which is one of the characteristics of the Classics. C. K.
LA BELLA LINGUA
"Quanta e (st) la profundita (s) del aqua?" I asked my Italian boatman at Portovenere near Spezia. We had just rowed past the rocky grotto where Byron wrote, and the clear blue water of the Mediterranean prompted the question. Was it Latin or Italian I had used? The words, surely, were Latin, but the boatman had no difficulty in understanding, and promptly told me over how many meters of transparent blue we were floating. A little later he remarked, "Il vento viene sempre piu forte". Was this Italian or only Latin with the edges rubbed off? Ille ventus venit semper plus fortis. The inciIdent was not without value. It showed me, better than any book, how very much alive today are the words and forms of that old Latin which we, teachers thereof, count dead. This paper might, therefore, take as a sub-title, The Value and Pleasure of trying to Learn a little Italian. If my own experience goes far enough, the study of Italian is seldom or never pursued in the University by those who expect to teach Latin, and rarely taken up as a side
line afterward. But who, I ask, not born in Italy, should rather undertake to learn Italian than those to whom the mother tongue is already familiar? After our obligatory French and German, we Latin teachers ought to turn with avidity and pleasure to the study of Italian as the natural complement and the modern extension of our Latin knowledge.
For Italian occupies the ancient home, not as a conqueror, but as a true daughter of the Latin. Few indeed are the imported words and forms, in comparison with the great bulk of the language. It has been to me a constant source of delight to find classical friends still doing duty on modern Italian lips. This is especially true in the case of those words which English did not inherit; for some reason we suppose such words to have perished with the Latin, hence the modern use of the old form is surprising. In today's Progresso I read that the official "fece altre indagini". Indagines, 'investigations', is in Pliny and Gellius. Our histories have overemphasized the break between the old and the new; we have been taught to think of the Fall of Rome as of some dire cataclysm, destroying all trace of the old speech. We are slow to realize how gradual the changes were, how little the people of those centuries perceived that they were changing, and we forget how close and continuous the literary tradition in Italy has been. A study of the Italian of today forces this truth home to the mind at every turn, and each new point of resemblance to the ancient language is suggestive and stimulating. French and Spanish, and I suppose Rumanian also, show this similarity, but not to the same degree. Spanish shows a larger admixture of foreign words, and the tendency to thickness of pronunciation which Cicero noted in the poet born in Cordoba has greatly changed both vowels and consonants: compare ova, uova, huevos; homo, uomo, hombre; etc.
To one who knows Latin already Italian is interesting in its vocabulary, its inflexions, and its pronunciation, and even a little knowledge of it is useful for its vivifying influence on our Latin. At first, the modern spelling tends to hide to the eye many similarities, which become evident to the ear. Ghiaccio, 'ice', seems a long way from glacies but the difference is superficial; allowing for the regular softening of after a consonant into i, and the change in the sound of c, the old and the new are not so far apart. Fuoco, 'fire', has nothing to do with ignis, the usual word in classical Latin, but is easily connected with focus 'the hearth'. This is a good illustration of a frequent shift of meaning which words have undergone in passing from classical through vulgar Latin into Italian. Another example is annegare, 'to drown', which is something of a puzzle until one learns that necare was restricted in vulgar Latin to death by drowning. It is interesting also to note how of two Latin synonyms one survived and the other perished: so ecus, caballus, It. cavallo; lu