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not remind themselves that the massacres of foemen of which Caesar speaks so often occur while the foe are running away, not while they are making a brave stand?

The true explanation of our passage is this: we have here in the cum clause two ideas contrasted one with the other, in a fashion which Greek, superior here vastly to Latin, would have brought out with absolute clearness with the help of μév and dé "They assailed the rear and having attended them (there is perhaps a bit of grim humor in prosecuti: cf. Cicero Cat. 2.1) many miles slew a host of them, because, though the rearguard stood their ground and manfully sustained the attack of our force, the van....looked on flight as its one and only safety". Caesar is but giving a hint to the (military) wise. We are to fill out that hint by inferring that but a part of the Roman force was needed to fight the manly rearguard, while the rest of the Romans press on and butcher the fugitive van. If this view is correct, then it follows at once that every note (even that of Messrs. Miller and Beeson) which lays stress on the connection of cum with consisterent is false and misleading. Formally, cum does belong with consisterent and sustinerent, yet in point of sense, at least to my feeling, its connection is rather with ponerent and with that alone. ab extremo agmine, which contains within itself, virtually, a substantival element subject of consisterent, and priores are sharply opposed one to the other'.

A passage somewhat similar to this occurs in De Bello Gallico 1.20, in the speech of Diviciacus: scire se illa esse vera nec quemquam ex eo plus quam se doloris capere, propterea quod, cum ipse gratia plurimum domi atque in reliqua Gallia, ille minimum propter adulescentiam posset, per se crevisset, etc. Messrs. Kelsey, Lowe and Ewing, Harper and Tolman all pass cum by without comment. But the passage surely means, "because at a time when though he himself (Div.) was extremely influential at home and abroad, the other (Dum.) had no power because of his youth". In a word, here again we have a μév-dé combination, though I grant that this is a simpler case, because there is nothing repugnant to our feeling here in coupling cum with both subjunctives, since both can be treated as circumstantial. My point is, of course, that editor and teacher should bring out here clearly the fact that the clauses ipse....Gallia and ille....posset sharply contrasted each to each.

FOR TEACHERS OF CAESAR

C. K.

are

In the sixth volume of his Survey of London, entitled Early London: Prehistoric, Roman, Saxon,

1 The foregoing note has been among my papers for many years The Second Year Latin Book by Messrs. Miller and Beeson appeared in(1902). I am glad to note that Mr. Hodges in his recent edition of Caesar (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 3.132) treats the passage rightly.

and Norman (Macmillan, 1908: $7.50 net) Sir Walter Besant discusses matters of interest to classical students. We subjoin part of a review of the book which appeared in The Nation of November 26, 1908 (though somewhat belated, this note may not wholly lack value; books at $7.50 are not for every teacher of Classics).

How did London come by its name? Did it exist at the time of Caesar's invasion of Britain, and, if so, how is it that he has not mentioned it? Sir Walter Besant contends that, "while London was as yet only a rude hill-fortress, perhaps while it was only a village of lake-dwellers in the marsh, perhaps before it came into existence at all", there was a busy and thriving community higher up the Thames, at Thorney Island, the future site of Westminster Abbey. This explanation we need to account for the fact that the great road from Dover and Canterbury to St. Albans did not touch London, but went through Westminster at Thorney Island. Sir Walter Besant's view that there was here a ford has been strongly contested, but we are not compelled to accept the ford, for a ferry would preserve continuity for the route over the river, as well as a ford, or even better. London was either not in existence, or was not worthy of so much as mention in 55 B. C., when Caesar invaded Britain; Dion Cassius, who tells the story of the invasion in A. D. 43, is also silent as to London. The question is how to reconcile all this with the fact that Tacitus, writing of A. D. 61, eighteen years later than Dion, describes London as a great and populous place. Sir Walter Besant's solution of the difficulty is that the importance of London was due solely to a great annual fair. This seems to go far towards reconciling facts in seeming contradiction. During the period of the Roman occupation of Britain, London rose to be a place of great importance. We come now to a most obscure part in the history of London. After the departure of the Romans, the city was ravaged by Saxon pirates and fell into decay: in two hundred years it is mentioned once only, and then merely as a place of retreat of fugitive Britons. "London", says Sir Walter, "was absolutely deserted-as deserted as Baalbec or Tadmor in the Wilderness-and she so continued for something like a hundred and fifty years". This view is not universally accepted: G. L. Gomme, for instance, has in his Governance of London contended with all the weight of his learning that after the departure of the Romans London remained essentially Roman in constitution. This view, it is needless to say, is wholly incompatible with the assumption of the desertion of London.

Reference may be made here to T. Rice Holmes's monumental work on Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar, pages 255, 703-705.

It very frequently happens that books whose titles are in no way suggestive, at least directly, of the Classics, after all are full of interest for the classical student. Publishers have such an ineradicable habit of knowing little about the books they present to the public that books of this type rarely find their way to the editorial desk. Hence I have not seen a book entitled The History of England (Volume I: England Before the Norman Conquest: G. P. Put

nam's Sons. $3.00), by Professor C. W. C. Oman, which is very favorably reviewed in The Saturday Times Review, of September 17, by Mr. Joseph Jacobs. I subjoin part of the notice.

Prof. Oman begins his account with two chapters devoted to the history of the country before historic records begin. He sums up, in his first chapter, the results of pre-historic archaeology derived from the opening of the long and the round barrows, which contain the remains of the earlier inhabitants of Britain. Curiously enough the race that buried their dead in long barrows were dolichocephalic or long-headed, while those who interred in round barrows were brachycephalic or roundheaded. The former used stone tools and weapons, the latter were men of the bronze age. These were succeeded by three waves of Celtic invaders: the Goidels, who also swarmed over into Scotland and Ireland; the Britons, who ultimately became the Welsh; and the Belgians, who_poured into the southeastern part of the island. Pytheas, a Greek traveler in England in the fourth century B. C., calls it the Pretanic Isle, from which the experts in Celtic tongues deduce the name of Britain as meaning the Land of Painted, or Tattooed, men. These Britains had adopted a coinage from the Macedonians as early as the second century B. C., and had acquired considerable skill in coining.

With Caesar Britain emerges into the light of history, and Prof. Oman has henceforth a fairly familiar tale to tell. But he is enabled to put new aspects on old facts by using the results of the latest researches, as those of Mr. Rice Holmes on Caesar's invasion and of Prof. Haverfield on the later Roman Conquest. Caesar's invasion was by no means so successful as he pretended. He was virtually repulsed in his first attack and failed in the second to obtain the booty and slaves which were the main object of his visit.

It is curious to find that one of the main reasons for Boadicea's rising was the pressure put upon British landowners by Roman money-lenders, among whom was the celebrated philosopher Seneca, who called in debts amounting to no less than ten million sesterces. Prof. Oman's intimate acquaintance with the history of the art of war enables him to make much more clear the intricate details of the campaigns of Suetonius and Agricola, especially by using the recently acquired knowledge of the names of the legions employed in holding down Britain. This, too, enables him to give a clear account of the object and method of Hadrian's Wall. The end of the Roman Empire in Britain is more clearly explained by Prof. Oman than by his predecessors, owing to his intimate acquaintance with the history of the later Roman Empire, and the causes which withdrew the legions from Britain. C. K.

THE AWARD OF THE NEW YORK LATIN CLUB SCHOLARSHIP FOR 1910-1911

About ten years ago the New York Latin Club began to raise by subscription a fund for a Latin scholarship (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY, 3.151). Last year this fund, which had been wisely invested by its Trustees, amounted to something over five thousand dollars. Accordingly, the Club decided to award the scholarship for the year 1910-1911,

and instructed the executive committee to draw up the conditions under which it should be awarded. The most important of these conditions are: (1) The scholarship will be of the value of $250, and shall be held for one year; (2) it will be awarded to that graduate from the high schools of New York City who, being of good moral character, shall have passed the best Regents' examination in Caesar, Cicero, and Vergil, and been admitted to the freshman class of some college or technical school approved by the Carnegie Foundation. Copies of these conditions were sent to the Principals of the various high schools, and the result was that thirty-seven pupils, representing eleven schools, were enrolled as contestants; this number was later reduced to thirtyone, representing ten schools.

Through the kindness of Dr. Bardwell, of the Board of City Superintendents of New York, and Dr. Wheelock, of the Regents' Board, the final papers of the candidates were sent to Albany in a special package that they might receive an early reading. About the middle of July the papers were returned from Albany and the averages were at once made out. The computations were made and verified by three persons, the secretary of the Latin Club, the treasurer, and Mr. F. J. Beardsley.

Of the thirty-one contestants, seven obtained an average of over 90 per cent.; seventeen between 80 and 89 per cent.; 6 between 70 and 79 per cent.; and one between 60 and 69 per cent. The following obtained an average above 90 per cent.: Myra McNicol, Morris High School, 92.04; Ethel L. Cornell, Girls' High School, 92.33; Alexander Weinstein, Morris High School, 92.58; Jacob Lipschutz, Boys' High School, 92.58; Louis L. Zagoren, Boys' High School, 93.33; Jay Voorheis, Erasmus Hall High School, 93.66; D. Renwick Kerr, Erasmus Hall High School, 94.54.

Therefore, for the year 1910-1911, the New York Latin Club scholarship has been awarded to D. Renwick Kerr. WILLIAM F. TIBBETTS.

RECENT BOOKS

(It is the intention of the editors to publish from time to time lists of new books, titles of articles, etc., likely to prove of interest to teachers and lovers of the Classics. Some at least of the books named will be reviewed later. The preparation of the material for these lists is in charge of Dr. William F. Tibbetts, of the Erasmus Hall High School, Brooklyn; he will welcome assistance from any quarter in his efforts to bring before the readers of The Classical Weekly the names of all books or articles likely to prove of interest or help to them).

Petrarch's Letters to Classical Authors. Translated from the Latin by Mario Emilio Cosenza. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 12 mo. $1.00.

Latin Prose Composition, Part I, Based on Caesar. By William Gardner Hale, with the Collaboration of Charles Henry Beeson and Wilbert Lester Carr. Chicago: Atkinson, Mentzer and Grover. Pp. XI81. $.50.

THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by the Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Saturdays, from October to May inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a lega! or school holiday, at Teachers College, 525 West 120th Street, New York City.

All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the literature, the life and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary Treasurer, Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY), are two dollars. Within the territory covered by the Association (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, scription) subis possible to individuals only through membership. To institutions in this territory the subscription price is one dollar per year.

Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is one dollar per year.

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UNDER THE NEW LATIN REQUIREMENTS adopted by the College Entrance Examination Board, April 16, 1910, schools shall select material not less in amount than the Gallic War, Books IIV, from the Gallic and Civil Wars and Nepos's Lives MATHER'S CAESAR-Episodes from the Gallic and Civil Wars ($1.25) presents the most interesting and important parts of both works. Already adopted by Hotchkiss and other prominent secondary schools. LINDSAY'S NEPOSTwenty-five Lives ($1.10). For several years the standard edition. Unusually full and helpful notes. complete vocabulary and English-Latin exercises. AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY Cincinnati

New York

Chicago

LOTHMAN'S LATIN LESSONS Based upon the use of grammar from the outset in order to secure a broadened understanding of Latin in succeeding years-this book insures at each step a definite gain in the comprehension of Latin constructions.

A brief outline of the essentials of English grammar, Latin-to-English and English-to-Latin exercises, a vocabulary taken from Caesar's Commentaries, readings from Caesar and Nepos, and frequent reviews make the book modern and helpful.

GINN AND COMPANY: PUBLISHERS 70 Fifth Avenue : : New York City

Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 VOL. IV NEW YORK, OCTOBER 8, 1910

It is surely unnecessary to state in terms that the publication of a given article in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY does not commit the editors to the views maintained in the article. Any serious effort from any quarter to advance the general causes which THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY espouses-some of which may be named, e. g. the determination of the aim(s) and purpose(s) of the study of the Classics, the kind (s) of profit that ought to be realizable from such study, and the best method(s) of appropriating such profitwill be certain of a welcome. So too will any review of a book which, whatever the reviewer's estimate of the book in question may be, shall seem free from animus or bias.

Having said this by way of preface, I turn for a moment to Mr. Bradley's article, entitled A Program of Reform, which appeared in the opening number of the current volume. I was much interested in this paper when I heard it read last April at the meeting of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States. The impression which it made upon me then can best be described by a slight modification of words which Mr. Bradley himself used last year in a review of a certain book: "This is a . . good book on . . . bad principles". Since the completed paper came into my hands a few days ago many occupations have prevented me from thinking out carefully, as I hope sometime to do, Mr. Bradley's Articles of Faith. double reading of the proofs of the paper leaves me where I was last April; without being able as yet exactly to formulate in all details the grounds of my objections, I still feel that there is a flaw somewhere in these articles.

But a

When I turn to Mr. Bradley's discussion of the way in which he would have the work of teaching beginners in Latin done in the class-room, I find very much to commend. When he urges strongly that without thorough drill in the language, without the acquisition of a certain knowledge and control of the fundamentals of the language, no real progress is possible, and that in particular progress in aesthetic appreciation of the literature is a mere dream, he is on impregnable ground. To be sure the positions taken here are by no means new, but none the less they need to be stated over and over again lest they be overlooked by reason of their very obviousness. One does not hear (at least I myself do not hear) at present

No. 2

as much uninformed, vague, foolish talk about the literary study of the Classics as one heard some ten or more years ago. But one still hears that sort of talk. Many people seem never to have dreamed that a course devoted outright to Latin or Greek syntax alone can, in the hands of some teachers at least, be made a wondrous means of furthering the literary study of Latin and Greek.

Hence Mr. Bradley's insistence on the point under discussion deserves our gratitude. Furthermore, if I understand him rightly, many of his proposals of means and methods for aiding the beginner toward this indispensable knowledge of the language seem to me not only good in themselves, but to breathe the very essence of the principles which underlie the action taken by The Classical Association of the Atlantic States at Washington in April, 1908. I have in mind the resolutions passed by the Association as embodying its programme of reform in the teaching of elementary language, a programme, which, to my mind, was far in advance of the compromise adopted at Cleveland in October, 1909, and put forth as the Report of the Commission on College Entrance Requirements in Latin (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 3.98100). In my opinion, profoundly important as the Report of the Commission was, in that for the first time there was intelligent and cordial COoperation of the East and the West in the consideration of problems of Latin study and teaching, it left the main problem-the actual teaching of preparatory Latin-largely unsolved. To that problem Mr. Bradley contributes something. What he says of intensive study in his programme we can all applaud. In what he says of extensive study of Latin there is little, if anything, to which one will take exception, aside from his strong advocacy of the study of large portions of Latin literature in English translations as a supplement to careful study of the language itself and of limited portions of the literature in the original. On this point I have little practical experience; that little has been rather in support of Mr. Bradley's contentions. Some important points must be noted here. It is one thing to have translations of the Classics studied by those who know no Greek or Latin as their sole means of making acquaintance with the Classics; with work of that sort done by classical departments I have small patience. It is a

very different thing to have translations used as subsidiary to such an elaborate amount of detailed study of the language itself as Mr. Bradley advocates. As Mr. Bradley says, we teachers of Greek and Latin should ourselves constitute the Department of Classical Languages and Literature (if we are ourselves competent really to constitute that department we have great reason to cry Dis deabusque omnibus gratias maximas et agimus et semper agemus. Of one thing at least I am positive; no one save the direct students of Latin and Greek is competent to constitute that department). Again, Mr. Bradley's proposals for the extensive study of Latin and Greek involve devoting most of the hours for extensive work to the most intensive sort of intensive study, an intensive study which will force the student to stand on his own feet, if anything ever will, and will pitilessly expose his ignorance, if ignorant he is, even to his teacher. Again, the careful following of such a programme of work as Mr. Bradley outlines would go far, in my opinion, to meet and nullify some objections which have been urged to the proposal to lay increased emphasis on examinations in the translation of Latin at sight as the road to admission to college. I feel very strongly that the teacher who succeeds in imparting from the outset a real knowledge of the language will have no difficulty in carrying that student through not only as much Latin as has heretofore been prescribed for ad mission, but much more. The difficulty has never been in the quantity per se.

I was interested also in the coyness, if I may use the word, of Mr. Bradley's reference to the oral use of Latin in the preparatory work. The danger that a mere term will be regarded by some as an infallible panacea for all discovered. and discoverable ills is always present; in this connection it is present, I think, in more than ordinary degree. We need a clearcut presentation of what is really meant by the oral method, at least of what is meant by those who have recently been using the term, and an equally clearcut indication of the extent to which the method, clearly delimited, is practicable for the average teacher in the preparatory school. Here, then, at the very outset of a new volume of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY we have set before us many, if not all, of the problems with which we have to deal. The editors will be glad to have the thoughts of the readers of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY on these topics. C. K.

BYWAYS OF ROMAN VERSE1 The great body of Latin versifiers, known and unknown, grouped together as Poetae Latini Minores by no means deserve the almost complete oblivion

1 This paper was read at the Fourth Annual Meeting of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, New York City, April

23, 1910.

into which they have been allowed to sink. The Minor Poets are worth reading; for among much that is commonplace, trashy or obscene, they have left to us some really beautiful poetry, and, beside this, a wonderful record in verse of their daily life, their loves and their hates, their labor and their play. Even the commonplace among this mass of verse is of value, not for the literary impressions conveyed, but for what is told of the life, the thought, the gossip of the day. These trifles of the day we do not get in the prose writings. The prose of the Romans was usually serious or at least sustained work; but the impressions of the moment were all given in verse. For as the centuries wore on after the Christian Era and Rome entered upon the period of her decline, Rome became a nation of versifiers. An overwhelming proportion of verse to prose marks the decline as well as the rise of a literature.

Among these Minor Poets the entire gamut of excellence is run. As Petronius says:

Each what each shall wish may find: there's nothing existing

Pleasing to all; one thorns, one the sweet roses doth cull.

It may, I hope, be of interest to stroll through these byways of verse in search of what is good, curious or amusing. And one word as to the form in which I shall offer my selections. I shall attempt to translate them into the same metrical forms as the originals. I am aware that this is regarded in highly authoritative quarters as rash, not to say rank, heresy. We are met with much objection about the genius of the language and other intangibilities of criticism. Alien verse forms can be grafted upon a language, as witness the entire body of Latin verse itself. I have long had a lurking belief that in order truthfully and accurately to convey the effect of Latin and Greek poetry in translation, the translation should be made in the metre of the original; and when we find so acute a critic as Mr. Churton Collins expressing a decided leaning to this opinion, it is, I think, pardonable to attempt such rendering; though I must crave indulgence for rushing in where, so to speak, angels have feared to tread.

Let us begin with the Emperors themselves. It is an imperial banquet of Augustus. The guests, chosen friends of the founder of an empire and patron of the arts, recline about the regal board. The scent of roses is heavy upon the air. The guests await the signal from the royal host. Augustus speaks:

Guests of mine, all corroding cares tonight will you banish?

Let not a clouded heart shadow this snow-white hour.

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