Developmental Local Government: A Case Study of South Africa

الغلاف الأمامي
Intersentia nv, 2005 - 313 من الصفحات
This book concerns the role of the state in achieving development. In many developing countries conventional wisdom concluded that development is best achieved through a centralised development strategy. The failure of this centralised development strategy has brought about the emergence of decentralisation to local government as one of the means to turn the tide of underdevelopment. This book presents decentralisation not only as a manifestation of 'good governance', but also as an indispensable tool towards development. The central question, however, is the following: how should the transitional state convert this into constitutional and legal arrangements? The author proposes a model for capturing the developmental role of local government in institutional arrangements. The new design for local government, put forward in South Africa's 1997 Constitution, is based on the notion that local government should be the epicentre of development. This has prompted the author to use this South African concept as well as the first experiences with the implementation of the new local government dispensation as a case study.The importance of the book thus lies in the fact that it produces an institutional model for developmental local government that is not only based on development and decentralisation theories but is also tested in practice. It is hoped that those with an interest in the role of the state in development will find the arguments and conclusions useful. The book also provides a comprehensive overview of the South African design for local government, which is of interest to lawyers, policy makers and other parties involved in the implementation of the South African decentralisation strategy. Jaap de Visser teaches public law at the Law Faculty of Utrecht University in the Netherlands. Until the end of 2002, he worked as a researcher for the Community Law Centre (University of the Western Cape), specialising in local government law.
 

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المحتوى

INTRODUCTION
1
2 Significance
2
32 Institutional principles
3
33 The South African approach
4
332 Supervision in South Africa
5
4 STRUCTURE AND METHODOLOGY
6
INSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR DECENTRALISED DEVELOPMENT
9
21 Material element
10
Devolution by the Department of Home Affairs
150
Appointment in terms of the Western Cape Liquor Policy
151
271 District municipalities in brief
152
272 Division of powers and functions
154
273 Strong redistributive district municipalities
155
274 Assessing the redistribution rationale
156
275 Democratic objections
157
28 Assessment of local government powers
158

22 Choice
11
23 Equity
12
232 Intergenerational equity
13
31 Deconcentration
14
33 Devolution
15
41 Slave trade and colonialism
16
43 Assessment
18
5 Is decentralisation good for development?
19
51 Material element
21
512 Macroeconomic and financial arguments
22
52 Choice
23
522 Accountability
25
523 Citizen participation
26
53 Equity
27
54 Other factors influencing decentralisation
29
542 Political will
30
55 Assessing the claim that decentralisation favours development
32
6 Towards institutional principles for decentralised development
33
62 Autonomy
35
621 Local democracy
36
6211 Democratic elections
37
6212 Citizen participation
38
622 Local government powers
39
6222 Relevance to the development mandate
40
623 Financial autonomy
41
6232 Critical size
42
63 Supervision
43
631 Regulation
44
633 Redistribution
45
64 A third principle
46
65 Summary of the principles
47
SOUTH AFRICAS CHOICE FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT
49
13 The 1983 Constitution
50
14 Apartheid
51
15 Towards a postapartheid South Africa
52
152 Certification and adoption of the final Constitution
53
21 National government
54
22 Provincial government
55
222 Executive authority
56
Local government
57
312 Racist
58
314 Exploitative
59
32 Local government transformation
60
321 Preinterim interim and final phase
61
322 Interim Constitution
63
323 Constitutional principles for local government
64
332 The ANCs conversion to strong local government
66
333 Origins of cooperative government
68
334 The new local government mandate
69
3341 Democracy
70
3343 Safe and healthy environment
71
the birth of the concept of developmental local government
72
4 Central features of the institutional design
74
41 Demarcation of walltowall local government
75
42 Municipal council
76
43 Municipal executive
77
44 Local government powers
78
442 Assigned powers and subsidiarity
79
444 Overriding national and provincial powers
80
45 Intergovernmental relations
81
452 Supervision by national and provincial government
82
453 Departments of local government
83
46 Local government finances
84
IDP and performance management
85
5 Assessment
86
AUTONOMY IN SOUTH AFRICAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
87
111 Constitutional principles and the founding values of the Constitution
88
112 Weighing the baskets
89
113 Constitutional framework
90
12 The electoral system for local government
91
122 District councils
92
123 Gender representation
94
132 Accountability of PR councillors
96
134 Experience
98
participatory local government
99
143 Disadvantaged groups
100
145 Municipal administration
101
146 Reporting on citizen participation
102
148 Communication
103
1410 Assessment
105
ward committees
106
151 Composition
107
153 Dissolution
108
2 Local governments powers
111
22 Sources of power for local government
113
23 Relevance of the governance areas to the development mandate
116
232 Formulation of the competencies
117
234 Development without housing?
118
235 Health services
119
236 Local economic development
120
24 Incidental powers
121
25 Powers of other spheres concerning local government matters
122
251 Is there conflict between a bylaw and national or provincial legislation?
123
2511 Distinguishing the topic
124
2521 National powers concerning Schedule 4B matters
126
2522 National laws in terms of section 1557
127
2523 National laws in terms of section 44
128
2524 Provincial powers concerning Schedule 4 Part B matters
131
2525 National powers concerning Schedule 5 Part B matters
132
2526 Provincial powers concerning Schedule 5 Part B matters
134
253 Does the nationalprovincial law impede the municipalitys ability to perform its task?
135
26 Adding powers and functions to the original powers
138
261 Assignment of legislative powers
139
2612 Assignment to local government in general
140
262 Assignment of executive power
141
263 Subsidiarity
142
264 Assessment of the framework for assignments
143
265 Delegation
145
266 A review of the practice of transferring functions
148
Accreditation in terms of the Housing Act
149
282 Role of the courts
159
284 Protection against unfunded mandates
160
286 District municipalities
161
3 Financial authority
162
32 Critical size
165
4 General assessment of local government autonomy
166
SUPERVISION IN SOUTH AFRICAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
169
1 Regulation
170
111 Latitude
172
112 A residual regulatory power for national government
173
12 Regulatory powers affecting local government functions
174
131 Prescriptive regulation
175
133 Principled approach
176
14 Assessment
177
2 Monitoring
178
22 Legal framework for monitoring
179
221 Constitutional and statutory basis for monitoring
180
223 Monitoring on request
182
231 Local government as a line function
183
3 Intervention
185
31 Legal framework for regular interventions
186
312 Issuing a directive
187
314 Approval by the Minister and the NCOP
189
315 Dissolution
191
32 Legal framework for financial interventions
192
321 Earlier attempts to accommodate financial interventions
193
322 Financial interventions
194
323 When to intervene
195
324 Instruments
196
33 Assessment
197
332 Intergovernmental checks and balances
198
333 Provincial capacity and role confusion
200
41 Equitable share
201
411 Process
202
412 Assessment
203
42 Determining the individual entitlement
204
422 Fiscal capacity
205
423 Spillover effects
206
5 General assessment of supervision of local government
207
COOPERATION IN SOUTH AFRICAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
209
12 The case for a principle of cooperation
210
13 The four elements of the principle of cooperation
211
133 Institutionalisation of horizontal integration
212
2 The principle of cooperation South African local government
213
212 Distinctive interdependent and interrelated
214
213 Judiciability of the principles of cooperative government
216
2132 Interrelatedness
217
214 Assessment of the normative framework for intergovernmental relations
218
221 Integrated development planning
219
223 Drafting and adoption
220
224 Minimum content
221
226 Status of the IDP
222
2272 IDP Process plan
223
a case study of KwaZuluNatal
224
2282 Provincial assessment of IDPs
225
2283 Linking IDP to provincial strategy
227
2291 Institutionalising strategic planning
228
2293 IDP as a specialist exercise
229
2294 Provincial role in IDP
230
231 Assessment
232
24 Instruments for intergovernmental relations
233
242 Consultation over legislation
234
2431 Consultation with organised local government
236
2432 Disparate municipalities
238
2433 Representation in Parliament
239
2434 Provincial associations
241
244 Representation in the Financial and Fiscal Commission
242
2441 Appointment procedure
243
245 MINMECs
244
the case for institutionalisation
245
2452 Budget Council
247
2453 Budget Forum
248
2454 Local government representation in the Budget Council?
249
246 Presidents Coordinating Council
250
247 Assessing the instruments for intergovernmental relations
252
GENERAL ASSESSMENT
255
3 Institutional principles for decentralised development
256
31 Autonomy
257
4 South African local government
258
5 Autonomy
259
6 Supervision
260
7 A third principle
262
9 Specific recommendations
265
92 Supervision
266
93 Cooperation
267
10 Benefit for other transitional states?
268
INSTITUTIONAL MODEL FOR DEVELOPMENTAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT
269
Autonomy
270
113 Citizen participation
271
122 Relevance to the development mandate
272
123 Clear demarcation
273
132 Critical size
274
Regulation
275
222 Support
276
23 Redistribution
277
Cooperation
278
Vertical integration
279
EPILOGUE
281
SAMENVATTING IN HET NEDERLANDS
283
2 Institutionele beginselen voor gedcentraliseerde ontwikkeling
284
21 Autonomie
285
3 Lokaal bestuur in ZuidAfrika
286
4 Autonomie
287
5 Supervisie
288
6 Een derde beginsel
290
Bibliography
293
Index
305
Curriculum vitae
313
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