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manufacturing industry. How far he may succeed in future experiments we cannot say; but many things are wanting to complete his views, as they have hitherto been given to the world. The absence of religious unity and discipline alone, in our opinion, is and will be constantly a source of failure in establishing communities.”

All, however, has now been set right by the discovery of the theory of attraction. We have only to believe that our "final destinies are proportionate to our inborn attractions," procure a square league of land, mass together four hundred families, and be happy, if we can : and if we will not be persuaded into it, we must be frightened by a superficial view of society and its evils. We must regret the semibarbarism of the middle ages, and sigh over the disappearance of some of the virtues of Greece and Rome, and believe that it was only in the sixteenth century, and in Greece and Italy alone at that æra, that art ever ruled and cherished among men the sacred fire of religion, of love, and of enthusiasm. We may believe that manners are Softened, that laws are more humane, but that faith and energy are from among all men; that the system of prison discipline is far gone worse than the rack of the Inquisition; that blind superstition and fanaticism have been indeed disarmed, but that with them has departed pure faith. To prepare ourselves for Phalansterianism, we must believe that

"In this state of things each individual is forced to scheme for himself, to the detriment of others; if a link of association is formed, it consists of interests in league against other interests; rich and poor, great and littleall the classes, all the industries, and all the members of each profession are in competition; in war, forming hostile coalitions to ruin each other, in self-defence.

"Every where,' says Fourier, we see each class interested in wishing ill to the others, and the individual interest in contradiction with the collective interest. The lawyer wishes, against his conscience, that discord should establish itself in all rich families, and create good law-suits;' the physician is unconsciously anxious that sickness should be plentiful; the military man wishes for a good war which would carry off his comrades, that he may procure advancement; the pastor is interested in the death of the rich, whose funerals are profitable; the judge unconsciously desires that France should continue to furnish annually fifty-five thousand seven hundred crimes; the monopolist desires to profit by good famines, which would double or triple the price of bread; the wine-merchant likewise is constrained to wish for 'good hailstorms' for the vine-crops, and 'good frosts' for the buds; the architect, the mason, the carpenter desire, no doubt unwillingly, a good fire, which should consume an hundred houses, to forward their trade.'

But the remedy is at hand for all these and countless more evils. Industry as now exercised is repulsive; we must make it attractive, and to do so, it must flow from a mode of association in which all interests agree and harmonise, instead of injuring each other; then only will man be in accordance with himself, with the universe, and with God. The following is Fourier's introductory argument :

"The law of attraction governs the whole universe, the plant, the insect, and the stars, accomplishing their revolutions. The animals obey a Divine

law, revealed by instinct, by attraction; all nature groups itself, associates in an harmonious concert, and accomplishes its destiny attractively. Man alone, ignorant of this Divine law, still struggles with his instincts, his desires, his passions, and attractions. In the midst of universal association and the harmony of worlds, human societies are sunk in discord and antagonism: their labours are repugnant; their relationships conflictive. Attraction, not being obeyed, becomes for man a source of suffering and chastisement. His miseries are aggravated by the knowledge of enjoyments he does not possess. Like a bee, transported to a barren rock, languishing from want of flowers to call forth its industry, man, being out of his destiny, is not the less capable of fulfilling it, and suffers in proportion to the distance separating him from harmony and unity.

" Attraction in the hands of God is like a magic wand, which enables him to obtain by love and pleasure, what man can only obtain by violence. It transforms the most repugnant functions into pleasure. What can be more repugnant than the care of a new-born infant, crying, helpless, and unclean? What does God do to transform so repulsive a duty into pleasure? He gives the mother impassioned attraction for these unclean offices; he simply uses his magical prerogative-the impress of attraction. Thenceforth repugnant functions disappear, and are changed into pleasures. "We see God confine himself to the simple lever of attraction to direct the planets and the stars, creatures immeasurably greater than ourselves; is man then alone excluded from the happiness of being guided to social unity by attraction? Why this interruption in the scale of the system of the universe? Why does attraction, the divine interpreter of unity in the highest and the lowest orders of creation, the law of stars and animals, sufficient to conduct them to harmony, not suffice for man, who is a creature between the planets and the animals? Where is the unity of the Divine system, if the law of general harmony, if attraction, is not applicable to societies of the human species, as well as to those of stars and animals; if attraction is not applicable to agricultural and manufacturing industry, which is the pivot of the social mechanism?

"Industry, the torment of the servant and the slave, nevertheless causes the delight of various creatures, bees, beavers, wasps, and ants, wholly free to prefer a life of idleness; but God has provided them with a social mechanism which attracts them to industry, their source of happiness. Why should he not have granted us the same privilege? What a difference between their industrial condition and ours! A Russian, an Algerine, works from fear of the whip and the bastonade; an Englishman, a Frenchman, from fear of famine, which threatens their families; the Greeks and Romans, whose liberty has been so much vaunted among us, laboured as slaves under the fear of punishment, as the negroes do now in our colonial possessions.

"Such is the happiness of man in the absence of an attractive law of industry; such is the effect of human laws; it reduces humanity to envy the lot of the industrious animals, for whom attraction changes their labours into pleasures. What would have been our happiness had God assimilated us to these animals, had he impressed on us passional attraction for the exercise of all the labour to which we are destined? Our life would be a series of delights, whence would arise immense riches; while in ignorant subversion of attractive industry, we are nothing but a society of galleyslaves, of whom some few escape from drudgery and maintain themselves in idleness. These are hateful to the mass, which tends, like them, to emancipate itself from labour: from thence arise revolutionary ferments, agitators, who promise the people leisure, wealth, and happiness, and who by some revulsion, having once obtained this for themselves, enslave the multitude anew to maintain themselves in the rank of idlers, or privileged directors of the industrious classes, which is a sort of idleness."

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This law of association is, we are told, a continuation of the theory of the Newtonian calculation of attraction. Its means of action are, first, the division of all men into corporations or phalanges, of fifteen to eighteen hundred persons, by which agricultural, domestic and manufacturing industry are to be developed; profits distributed according to the industrial powers, capital, labour, and skill; and labour rendered attractive by the formation of labourers into groups and series, relieving each other every two or three hours, and embracing a variety of tasks by means of this division of labour, which alone, Fourier maintains, renders occupation easy. Corporativeness, or social unity, is the pivot of the system; attractive industry the motive power. The machine to be moved is a Phalanx. There are many phalanxes, but one of complete harmony must consist of a congregation of from four hundred persons to four hundred families. It is wonderful how much depends on numbers, and how accurately our philosopher can draw the line of phalangial concord and discord. It all depends on a mathematical calculation, a sum without an error in it, and the result is the two magical numbers, 400 and 1800, the limits of the domain of concord. A human parallelogram, whose sides are in the ratio of four to eighteen; an estate of humanity, bounded on the east and west by four hundred souls, and on the north and south by eighteen hundred of a like kind. The mystical numbers of Pythagoras were as dust to the calculations of Fourier. Well, let us take a full-grown phalanx, situated on an estate nine miles square,— numbers again,

"Thrice to thine and thrice to mine,

And thrice again to make up nine.
Peace, the charm's wound up."

Even so; and four hundred families, rich and poor, little and large, fat and thin, clever and stupid, good and bad, are all lodged in one huge building, the material Phalanx. Each person or each family is to contribute so much capital, either in money, skill, or labour. To the lowest class, who contribute labour alone, the Phalanx will advance the minimum common necessaries of life ;-to the other two classes, the skillists and capitalists, proportionately to their contributions to the society. Every one may raise himself out of the minimum, or suffer himself to fall into a lower class: at the year's end the entire produce of the estate will be taken by the corporation, who will first deduct the expenses of supporting the phalansterians and working the colony, including the advances to the three classes, and then divide the surplus into twelfths. Five of which are to be divided per capita among the simple labourers, whilst four others are to be shared among the capitalists who hold the 1728 shares, into which the concern's capital is divided; and the remaining three twelfths are to satisfy the skillists for their practical and theoretical knowledge. Such is the theory: now for the building. We give it in Fourier's

entre should be devoted to peaceful functions, to dining rooms,

exchange, council rooms, libraries, studies, &c. In this centre are placed the temple, the tour d'ordre, the telegraph, the observatory, the winter court, ornamented with evergreens, and placed behind the court of parade.

"One of the wings must contain all the noisy trades, as carpentery, smith-work, and hammering; it must likewise contain all the industrial assemblies of children, who are generally very noisy.

"The other wing must contain the caravansery hotel with its ball-rooms, and chambers for intercourse with strangers, that they may not encumber the domestic relationship of the Phalanx.

"The Phalanstery, besides its individual apartments, should contain many public rooms, called seristeries, or places of industrial and corporate ̧ accommodation.

"There should be set apart, near the dining-rooms, chambers for the different groups who wish to separate themselves from the common tables. "For every occupation small rooms are contrived close to the seristeries,' or large rooms for the convenience of smaller companies.

"The stables and store-rooms should be placed, if possible, opposite the mansion. The interval between the palace and the industrial buildings would serve as a court of honour, or general evolution.

"Behind the centre of the palace, the lateral fronts of the two wings ought to be prolonged, to contrive and enclose a great winter court, forming a garden and promenade, planted with evergreens; this promenade can be placed only in a closed court, and is not to be open to the fields.

"Not to give to the palace too extended a front, with developments and prolongations which would retard the communications, it will be convenient to double the body of buildings in the wings and centre, and leave in the interval of the contiguous parallel bodies a vacant space of from thirty to forty feet, at least, which would form elongated courts, traversed by corridors on columns, level with the first story, with closed glass windows, and heated or ventilated, according to the season.

"The street-galleries of a Phalanx do not receive light from both sides, they form part of the body of the dwellings; each body has a double suite of chambers, of which one suite looks out on the fields, and the other into the gallery. The church on one side and the theatre on the other, complete the centre of Phalansterian unity.”

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Supposing all the eighteen hundred Phalansterians to be Goodytwo-Shoes of the very first water; supposing concord rice discord; supposing contentment vice discontentment; supposing that every one is contented with the position in which the Phalanx has placed him; in fine, suppose human nature not human, but phalansterian nature, and the Phalanx practicable, and then no one can deny the immense temporal benefit that will accrue to the members of the harmonious corporation.

The jolly sons of harmony
a-meeting at the Phalanx.

Doubtless under these suppositions five kitchens are cheaper than four hundred. One vast store-room with its various compartments for every kind of produce, is undoubtedly an improvement on four hundred small barns, with a higgledy-piggledy conglomerate within its walls; of a truth, the Phalanx having got its estate, can choose the most suitable localities for various produce, or the most favour

* We have placed this in italics, for the especial benefit of the Curate of Horbling.

cradle the new scheme is to commence. First, a great nursery in three departments for the infants of the entire phalanstery-rather noisy at times. We beg pardon, the children are in harmony; this is the true singing for the million. No swaddling-clothes and furs, but rooms of even temperature, hot water stoves, and spontaneous nurses. And now comes the grand invention,-the pivot of infantine harmony: "the cradles are moved by machinery, twenty at a time." Ohe jam satis, Madame Gammon— -a mere slip of the pen. We have not time to alter it now. But let the lady give her own view of this education scheme.

"To vary the positions of the child, a cradle alone would not be sufficient; elastic mats will be employed. They are placed breast high; their supports form cavities, where each infant can lodge without incommoding its neighbours. Nets of cord and silk, placed from distance to distance, will guard the infant, without depriving it of motion, or preventing it from seeing and approaching the neighbouring infant, separated only by a net. Other arrangements are provided, so that they may all occupy themselves, amuse themselves, play, and at the same time extend, develop and exercise their limbs, and try their strength.

"Each of the chambers is served day and night by several groups of nurses of all ages; for the care of children pleases women at all periods of life. The greater part of the young girls, women, and matrons of the Phalanx, will voluntarily enrol themselves in the groups of nurses; the infants, who will be classed in the different rooms as their dispositions, more or less mild or clamorous, mischievous or violent, require nurses of different characters. The nurses will choose the groups for which they feel an aptitude. The more patient and easy-tempered will enrol themselves in the group of service for noisy and impatient children; the less patient will enrol themselves in the group of little angels. Each group will be again divided into smaller groups, forming a new choice for the nurses: one division is appointed to give nourishment; another attends to cleanliness; another watches constantly.

"The wet-nurses will form distinct groups; these are the mothers, who come at appointed hours, each to nourish her own infant. If one of the mothers is unwell, or deficient in milk, another who has a superabundance will assist her; it is a duty she performs towards the Phalanx, charged with the care of all the infants; it is a mark of affection she gives to the mother; it is a bond of unity among the sex.

"If a mother falls ill, all the series of nurses will offer to replace her immediately. Each mother who wishes to prolong the cares given to her own infant, will enrol herself in the series of nurses, and will choose the groups which suit her: she gives her suckling particular attention, according to her own good pleasure. The infant belongs to the mother first, and to the Phalanx next. She joins the general group only because she sees she cannot give her infant near such constant and assiduous cares as it would find in the nursery, where groups of nurses, ardently attached to the children, relieve each other, day and night, without interruption. The mothers who wish to suckle their infants, without attending to the common duties of the nursery, will not enrol themselves in any group of the nursery corporation but the one, and be free to attend to other labours of their choice. The young mother, thus disposed, may content herself with seeing and embracing her infant, and witness the cares bestowed on it by others; nor is she required to participate in its maintenance. The Phalanx ensures to all its members, from the day of their birth, the minimum of subsistence, care, and comfort.

"As soon as the children have some gleams of intelligence, and are

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