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CHAP. this gate. Having passed, you look about, and

wonder what is become of the city, or where
you are; and are ready to ask, once more, How
far is it to Moscow ? They will tell you,

“ This
is Moscow !” and you behold nothing but a wide
and scattered suburb, huts, gardens, pig-sties,
brick walls, churches, dunghills, palaces, timber-
yards, warehouses, and a refuse, as it were, of
materials sufficient to stock an empire with
miserable towns and miserable villages. One
might imagine all the States of Europe and
Asia had sent a building, by way of represen-
tative to Moscow : and under this impression
the eye is presented with deputies from all
countries, holding congress : timber-huts from
regions beyond the Arctic; plastered palaces
from Sweden and DENMARK, not white-washed
since their arrival; painted walls from the
TIROL; mosques from CONSTANTINOPLE; Tahtar
temples from BUCHARIA; pagodas, pavilions,
and virandas, from China; cabarets from SPAIN;
dungeons, prisons, and public offices, from
FRANCE; architectural ruins from Rome; ter-
races and trellisses from NAPLES; and ware-
houses from WAPPING.

Having heard accounts of its immense population, you wander through deserted streets. Passing suddenly towards the quarter where



the shops are situate, you might walk upon the heads of thousands. The daily throng is there so immense, that, unable to force a passage through it, or assign any motive that might convene such a multitude, you ask the cause, and are told that it is always the same. Nor is the costume less various than the 'aspect of the buildings: Greeks, Turks, Tahtars, Cossacks, Chinese, Muscovites, English, French, Italians, Poles, Germans, all parade in the babits of their respective countries.


We were in a Russian inn; a complete epi- Russian tome of the city itself. The next room to ours was filled by an ambassador, and his suite, from Persia. In a chamber beyond the Persians; Persian,

Kirgisian, lodged a party of Kirgisians; a people yet un- and Buchaknown, and any of whom might be exhibited bassadors. in a cage, as some newly-discovered species. They had bald heads, covered by conical embroidered caps, and wore sheep-skins. Beyond the Kirgisians lodged a nidus of Bucharians, wild as the asses of Numidia. All these were ambassadors from their different districts, extremely jealous of each other, who had been to Petersburg, to treat of commerce, peace, and

The doors of all our chambers opened into one gloomy passage; so that sometimes we all encountered, and formed a curious masque




with us.

CHAP. rade. The Kirgisians and Bucharians were best

at arm's length; but the worthy old Persian,
whose name was Orazai, often exchanged visits

He brought us presents, according to
the custom of his country; and was much
pleased with an English pocket-knife we had
given him, with which he said he should shave
his head. At his devotions, he stood silent for
an hour together, on two small carpets, bare-
footed, with his face towards Mecca; holding,
as he said, intellectual converse with Mohammed.


Orazai came from Tarky, near Derbent, on the western shore of the Caspian. He had with him his nephew, and a Cossack interpreter from Mount Caucasus. His beard and whiskers were long and grey, though his eye-brows and eyes were black. On his head he wore a large cap of fine black wool. His dress was a jacket of silk, over which was thrown a large loose robe of the same materials, edged with gold. His feet were

covered with yellow Morocco slippers, which were without soles, and fitted like gloves. All his suite joined in prayer, morning and evening; but the old man continued his devotions long after he had dismissed his attendants. Their poignards were of such excellent steel, that our English swords were absolutely cut by them. Imitations of these



poignards are sold in Moscow, but of worse materials than the swords from England. When they sit, which they generally do during the whole day, they have their feet bare. Orazai was very desirous that we should visit Persia, Taking out a reed, and holding it in his left hand, he began to write from right to left, putting down our names, and noting the information we gave him of England. Afterwards he wrote his own name, in fair Persian characters, and gave it to us, as a memorial by which to recognise us if we ever should visit Persia.

Upon the journey, they both purchased and sold slaves. He offered an Indian negro, who acted as his cook, for twelve hundred roubles. An amusing embarrassment took place whenever a little dog belonging to us found his way into the ambassador's room. The Persians immediately drew up their feet, and hastily caught up all their clothes, retiring as far back as possible upon their couches. They told us, that if a dog touch even the skirt of their clothing, they are thereby defiled, and cannot say their prayers

without changing every thing, and undergoing complete purification. His slaves sometimes played the balalaika, or guitar with two strings. The airs were very lively,


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CHAP and not unlike our English hornpipe. The

ambassador's nephew obliged us by exhibiting
a Persian dance; which seemed to consist of
keeping the feet close together, hardly ever
lifting them from the ground, and moving
slowly, to quick measure, round the room.
They drink healths as we do; and eat with
their fingers, like the Arals, all out of one dish,
which is generally of boiled rice. If they eat
meat, it is rarely any other than mutton, stewed

soup. The young man drank of the Russian
beverage called hydromel, a kind of mead; and
sometimes, but rarely, he smoked tobacco.
The ambassador never used a pipe; which
surprised us, as the custom is almost universal
in the East. Their kindness to their slaves was
that of parents to children: the old man ap-
pearing, like another Abraham, the common
father of all his attendants. The dress of their
interpreter, a Cossack of the Volga, was very
rich. It consisted of a jacket of purple cloth
lined with silk, and a silk waistcoat, both with-
out buttons; a rich shawl round his waist;
large trowsers of scarlet cloth; and a magni-
ficent sabre.

Ambassadors of other more Oriental hordes drove into the court-yard of the inn, from Petersburg. The Emperor had presented each

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