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Hebrew verity. I refer below (y) to another place relating to the books of the New Testament.

The third Council of Carthage, about 397. ordains," that (z) nothing “ beside the canonical scriptures be read in the Church under the name “ Divine Scriptures.”

Augustin, in 395. and afterwards, often (a) speaks of canonical scriptures, and the (b) whole canon of scripture, that is, all the sacred books of the Old and New Testament. We « (c) read of fome, says he, that they "searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so. Acts xvii. 11. “What scriptures, I pray, except the canonical scriptures of the Law and « the Prophets? To them have been since added the Gospels, the Epistles “ of Apostles, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Revelation of John.Of the superior authority of the canonical scriptures to all others, he speaks frequently in passages afterwards alleged (d) in the same chapter.

Chrysostom in a place already cited (e) says: “ They (f) fall into

great absurdities, who will not follow the rule for canon) of the divine “ fcripture, but trust entirely to their own reasoning.” I refer to another place (g) to the like purpose. Says Isidore of Pelufium, about 412. “ that (i) these things are so, we

, « Thall perceive, if we attend to the rule (canon) of truth, the divine “ fcriptures.”

And Leontius, of Conftantinople, about 610. having cited the whole catalogue of the books of scripture from Genesis to the Revelation (k) concludes : “ These (1) are the ancient and new books, which are re« ceived in the Church as canonical.”

By all which we discern, how much the use of these words, canon and canonical, has obtained among Christians, denoting those books, which are of the highest authority, and the rule of faith: as opposed to all other whatever, particularly, to ecclesiastical, or the writings of orthodox and learned catholics, and to apocryphah the productions, chiefy, of heretics, which by a specious name and title made a pretension to be accounted among facred books.

IV. The most common and general division of the ca- Old and New nonical books, is that of ancient and new, or the Old and Teftament. New Testament. The Hebrew word, berith, from which


Do 208.

6) Vol. *. p. 86. («)...p.193.

p(a) ... p. 207. (6) Totus autem canon scripturarum .. his libris continetur. 16. not. (-) (c) p. 252. (d) See p. 253. 256. 259... 268. (e) Vol. xii. p. 126.

(f) Οράς, εις όσιν ατοπίαν εκπίπίεσιν ου μή βελόμενοι τα της θείας γραφής καTaxong Isão navón x. a. In Gen. cap. 33. hom. 58. T.4. p. 566. B.

(5) Vid. hom. 33. in . Ap. fub fin.

(i) Οτι δε ταύτα ύτως έχει, τον κανόνα της αληθείας, τας θείας φημι γραφος, malanlivo opsv. Ifid. ep. 114. 1. 4.

(4) See Vol. xi. p. 381.

(1) Ταύτα έσι τα κανονιζόμενα βιβλία εν τη εκκλησία, και ταλαια και νία: Cisat. ibid. p. 380. not. (©).

it is translated, properly signifies (m) covenant. St. Paul, 2 Cor. iii. 16.
.... 18. shewing the superior excellence of the gospel-covenant, or the
dispensation by Christ, above the legal covenant, or the dispensation by
Moses, useth the word testament, not only for the covenant itself, but
likewise for the books, in which it is contained. At leaft he does fo, in
speaking of the legal covenant. For, representing the case of the unbe-
lieving part of the Jewish People, he says v. 14. Until this day remainetha
the fame vail untaken away in reading the Old Testament.

It is no wonder therefore, that this way of speaking has much pre-
vailed among Christians. Melito, Bishop of Sardis, about the year 177.
went into the East, to get an exact account of the books of the Law and
the Prophets. In his letter to his friend Onefimus, giving an account of
his journey, and reckoning up the books in their order, he calls them (11)
the ancient books, and (c) the books of the Old Testament. Eusebe calls it
(0)“a catalogue of the acknowledged scriptures of the Old Testament."
Our Ecclefiaftical Historian elsewhere () speaks of the scriptures of the
New Testament. I shall remind my readers of but one instance more.
Cyril of Jerusalem, introducing his catalogue of fcriptures received by the
Christian Church, says: “These (r) things we are taught by the di-
« vinely inspired scriptures of the Old and New Testament.” Many
other like examples occur in the preceding volumes of this work.

V. Instead of teftament Latin writers fometimes use the

word infirument, denoting writing, charter, record. We
find it several times in Tertullian, reckoned the most ancient Latin writer
of the Church now remaining. In a paffage already (s) cited he calls
the Gospels, or the New Testament in general, the Evangelic Inftru-
ment. And says: “ How (t) large chalms, Marcion has made in the
epistle to the Romans, by leaving out what he pleafes, may appear from
our entire Instrument:” or our unaltered copies of the New Testament,
particularly of that cpistle. Speaking of the Shepherd of Hermas, he
fays, it (u) was not reckoned a part of the Divine Inftrument: thereby
meaning, as it seems, the New Testament. Which paslage was quoted (*)


(m) Notandum, quod Brith, verbum Hebraicum, Aquila ovrhnunu, id est, pačium, interpretatur: Lxx semper doce Inxny, id ett, teftamentum : et in plerifque scripturarum locis testamentum non voluntatem defunciorum sonare, fed pactum viventium. Hieron. in Malach. cap. ii. 1. 3. p.1816.

(η) Ετι δε και μαθεϊν την των παλαιών βιβλίων έβαλήθης ακριβειαν. κ. λ. Αρ.
Euleb. I. 4... 27. p. 148. D.

4. 6.
(0) Και ακριβώς μαθών τα της σαλαϊας διαθήκης βιβλία. 16. p,


149. A.

() Ibid. p. 148. D. (9) See vol. viii. p. 197.
(r) The fame. p. 267.

(s) See Vol. ii. P. 577.
(1) Quantas autem foveas in ifta vel maxime epistola [ad Romanos) Mar-
cion fecerit, auferendo quæ voluit, de noftri Inftrumenti integritate patebit.
Adv. Marcion. l. 5. cap. 13. p. 601.

(u) Sed cederem tibi, si scriptura Paftoris - divino instrumento merụisset
incidi... De Pudicii. cap. 10. P. 727; 4.

(-) See Fel. ii. p. 638.

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by us formerly. He calls (y) the Law and the Prophets the Jewish Instruments: that is, writings, or scriptures. He speaks of the antiquity (z) of the Jewish Instruments, or Scriptures. He (a) seems in one place to use the word instrument, as equivalent to scriptures, containing the doctrine of revelation, or the revealed will of God.

VI. Digest is another word used by Tertullian in speaking of the scriptures.

Digest. Luke's (6) Digest, he says, is often ascribed to Paul.He calls (c) the Gospels, or the whole New Teftunert, our Digest, in allusion, as it seems, to some collection of the Ronian Laws digested into order. Those two passages were cited in the chupter of Tertullian. I now transcribe the later below (d) more at large, it having also the word instrument, as equivalent to the New Testament. He likewise calls the Jewish Scriptures (e) Sacred Digejls. He seems to use the word digest (f) elsewhere, as equivalent to writing, or work, in general.

I shall not take notice of any other general denominations of the facred scriptures. VII. My chief concern is with the New Testament, which,

Gospel. as is well known, consists of Gospels, the Acts, and Epistles. The only word, that needs explanation is the first.

Gospel is a translation of the Greek word etayyidow, the Latin word, evangelium, which signifies any good message or tidings. In the New Teftainent the word denotes the doctrine of salvation, taught by Jesus Christ, and his Apostles. Which indeed is gospel by way of eminence, as it is the best tidings that ever were published in this world. Says Theodoret upon Rom. i. 1. “ He (8) calls it gospel, as it contains af

surance (y) Aut nunquid non jufti Judæi, & quibus pænitentia non opus effet, habentes gubernacula disciplinæ, & timoris inftrumenta, Legem & Prophetas. De Pudicitia. cap. 7: P.722. B.

(z) Primam inftrumentis iftis auctoritatem fumma antiquitas vindicat, Apol. cap. 19. p. 19. B.

Sed quoniam edidimus, antiquissimis Judaeorum inftrumentis sectam iftam esse suffultam. Apol. cap. 21. in. p. 20.

(a) Sed quo plenius et imprefius tam ipfum, quam difpofitiones ejus et voluntates adiremus, inftrumentum adjecit literaturæ, fi quis velit de Deo inquirere. Apol. cap. 18. p. 18. C. ib) See Vol. ii. p. 581. or 579.

(c) The fame p. 629, or 630. (d) Si vero Apoftoli quidam integrum evangelium contulerunt, de fola conviêus inæqualftate reprehenfi

, Pleudapoftoli autem veritatem eorum interpolarunt, et inde sunt noftra digefta : quod erit germanum illud Apoftolorum inftrumentum, quod adulteros paffum eft? Adver. Marc. l. 4. cap. 3. p.

(e) Sed homines gloriæ, ut diximus, et eloquentiæ folius libidinofi, fi quid in fanétis oftenderunt digeftis, exinde regeftum pro instituto curiositatis ad propria verterunt. Apol. cap. 47: p. 41. B.

(5) Elegi ad compendium Varronis opera, qui rerum divinarum ex omnibus retro digeftis commentatus, idoneum fe nobis fcopum expofuit. Ad Nation. I. 2. cap. i. p. 64. C.

g) Ευαγγέλιον δε το κήρυγμα προσηγόρευσεν, ώς πολλων αγαθών υπισχνόμενον χορηγίαν. Ευαγγελίζεται γαρ τας τι θιά καlαλλαγας, την τυ διαβόλα καλάλυσιν, των αμαρτημάτων την άφεσιν, τα θανάτε την παύλαν, των νεκρών την ανάσαEN, TÀI Cwan Thawnoy, TW Baoinitas Tūv egaväv. In ep. ad Rom. T.3. p.10.B.

504. B.

“surance of many good things. For it proclaims peace with God, the “overthrow of Satan, the remission of fins, the abolishing of death, the “ resurrection of the dead, eternal life, and the kingdom of heaven.”

Says St. Matthew iv. 23. And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom. Kai xnguoow to ευαγγέλιον της βασιλείας . tửayyidion This Basistics Mark xiii. 10. And the gospel [tò sưzgyár.co] must first be preached to all nations. Ch. xvi. 15. Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. Kngúčati to svæggyárcov. It is called the word of truth, the gospel of our salvation. Epi. i. 13. And in like manner, in other places.

But by gospel, when used by us concerning the writings of the Evangelists, we mean the historie of Christ's preaching, and miracles. The word seems also to be so used by St. Mark i. 1. The beginning of the &ofpel of Jesus Christ. Which may be understood, and paraphrased thus: “ Here (A) begins the Historie of the life and doctrine of Jesus Christ, « the Son of God, and Saviour of mankind.”

St. Luke, referring to the book of his Gospel, says: Acts i. 1. 2. The former treatise have I made, o Theophilus, of all that Jisus began to do and teach, until the day in the which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy Ghost had given commandments unto the Apostles, whom he had chosen. But St. Luke, as it seems, there puts the principal part for the whole. For he has therein writ also the historie of our Lord's miraculous birth, and divers extraordinarie events attending it: and likewise the historie of the birth of John the Baptist, and divers circumstances of it, and his preaching and death.

In this sense the'word Gospel is frequently understood by us. A Gor pel is the historie of Jesus Christ, his doctrine, miracles, resurrection, and ascension: not excluding the historie of his fore-runner, who (e) also is said to have preached the gospel, that is, the doctrine of the gospel, or the kingdom of God.

a ne Gospel according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, is the historie of Jesus Christ, as writ by those several Evangelists.

(A) That is Dr. Clarke's Paraphrase.' But I am sensible, it will not be allowed by all. Oecumenius says, that by gospel Mark does not intend his own writing, but Christ's preaching. Máęxo, sexi, onoi, to ivayyidus incó

, , φησί, το χεις αλλά και την εαυτο συγγραφής καλεί ευαγγέλιον, αλλα το τ8 χρισε κήρυγdan Oecum. in Act, Ap. He proceeds to say, that the faithful afierwards called the writings of the Evangelists Gospels, as truly containing the gospel, that is, the doctrine of Chrit. See Vol.xi. p. 413.

, (B) Matt. iii. 1. 2. In those days came John the Baptif, preaching in the wildernesle of Judea, and Saying : Kepent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. Compare Mark i. 4. Luke iii. s. 2. And says St. Luke iii. 18. ether things in his exhortation preached be unto ihe people. Ilonna pin or sy i tega σαρακαλων, επηγγελίζετο τον λαόν. Which may be literally rendered thus:

And exhorting many other like things, be evangelized (or preached the gospel to] the people.

And many


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General Observations upon the Canon of the New Testament. 1. ****HE canonical books of the New Testament, received by To ,

Christians in this part of the world, are the Four Gospels, the **** Acts of the Apostles, Fourteen Epistles of St. Paul, Seven

Catholic Epiftles, and the Revelation II. There may be different canons of the New Testament among Christians.

Indeed, there have been in former times, and still are, different senti, ments among Christians, concerning the number of books to be receiv. ed as canonical. The (a) canon of the Syrian churches is not the same as ours. Jerome tells us, that (b) in his time some of the Latins reject. ed the epistle to the Hebrews, and some of the Greeks the book of the Revelation. From Chryfoftom's works we perceive, that (C) he did not receive the second epistle of St. Peter, nor the second and third of St. John, nor the epistle of St. Jude, nor the Revelation. And there is reason to think, that (d) Theodoret's canon likewife was much the same with Chryfoftom's, and that of the churches in Syria. Nevertheless, we have observed in the course of this work, that about the same time the Egyptians, and the Christians in divers other parts of the world, had the fame number of canonical books, that we have.

But to come nearer our own time. Calvin (e) Grotius (8) Le Clerc (8) Philip Limborch (b) and some other learned moderns, have not admitted the epistle to the Hebrews to have been writ by St. Paul: though (i) they were willing to allow it to be the work of an apoftolical man, and a valuable part of sacred scripture. But I cannot say, that they were in the right in so doing. For it appears to me to have been a maxim of the ancient Christians, not to receive any doctrinal or preceptive writing, as of authority, unless it were known to be the work of

an (a) See Vol. ix. p. 221. Vol. xi. p. 270. . .275. (6) Vol. x. p. 122. 123.

(c) The fame. p. 341. (d) Vol. xi. p. 88. 89. 91.

(e) Ego ut Paulum agnoscam au&torem, adduci nequeo. Calvin. argum, in ep. ad Hebr.

1) Facillima refutatu eft poftrema hæc opinio, ideo quod Paulinæ epistolæ inter fe fint germanæ, pari charactere ac dicendi modo : hæc vero mani. feste ab iis discrepet, selectiores habens voces Græcas, leniusque fluens, non autem fracta brevibus incisis, ac salebrofa. ..., Grot. Prooem. in ep. ad Hebr.

(8) Hift. Ec. Ann. 69. p. 455... 461. (5) Prolegom. in ep. ad Hebr.

(:) Hisce argumentis utrinque attente expenfis dicendum videtur, Paulum epiftolæ hujus fcriptorem non videri.,..., Quis vero illius fcriptor fit, incertum est. Alii eam Lucæ, alii Barnabæ, alii Clementi adfcribunt. .. Interim divinam hujus epiftola autoritatem agnoscimus, multisque aliis, quas ab Apoftolis effe fcriptas, conftat, ob argumenti quod tractat praftangam præferendam judicamus. Limb. ibid. Vid. et Calvin, ubi fupra.


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