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of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame. As concerning the rest 12 of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away : yet

expressions in Is. Ixv. 6 ('Behold, it is written before me': cf. Jer. xvii. I); Mal. iii. 16 (cf. Est. vi. 1); Ps. lvi. 8.

11. The beast representing the fourth empire is slain, and utterly destroyed, on account of the blasphemies of Antiochus Epiphanes (v. 8), the idea being that the guilt of the empire culminated in him. The writer thinks of empires only, not of individuals; and it is impossible to say what he pictured to himself as being the fate of the individuals of whom the fourth empire consisted.

I beheld, &c.] The second 'I beheld' is resumptive of the first, after the intervening clause introduced by because--a construction of which there are many examples in Hebrew (e.g. Lev. xvii. 5; Jud. xi. 31; Zech. viii. 23). I beheld till, as v. 9. The clause because, &c., though apparently giving the reason for 'I beheld,' gives in reality the reason for the beast was slain,' &c.

and his body destroyed] The empire being represented by an animal, its 'body' will correspond to the fabric, or political organization, of the State. This is to be utterly brought to an end.

and he was given to be burned with fire (R.V.)] lit. to the burning of fire (cf. Is. Ixiv. II, lit. 'has become for the burning of fire), i.e. to complete destruction. It is hardly likely that there is any allusion here to the torments of the wicked after death, for though in parts of Enoch, written probably within 50 years of Daniel (x., 13, xxi. 7-10, xc. 2427), mention is made of a fiery place of punishment for wicked angels and men, had that been intended here it is probable that it would have been indicated more distinctly,—to say nothing of the fact that, as remarked just above, it is the fate of empires, not of individuals, that the writer has in view. Rev. xix. 20, xx. 10 are not sufficient proof that the author of Daniel had the idea here in his mind.

12. the rest of the beasts] Commentators are divided as to whether the three beasts of vv. 4–6, or the seven horns left after the three had been rooted up (v. 8), are intended: but the expression used ( beasts”) strongly favours the former interpretation. In the abstract, it is true, the latter interpretation might be deemed the more probable; for, as the beasts' represent successive kings, or kingdoms (vv. 17, 23), the dominion of the first three would naturally be at an end long before the period of the judgement on the fourth, whereas the seven horns’ might well be conceived as subsisting still. In point of fact, however, the kingdoms, though in reality successive, are in the vision represented as contemporaneous: nothing is said in vv. 3—-7 about the disappearance of one beast when a second appears; all continue visible, side by side. So in ch. ii. the four kingdoms represented by the image are destroyed simultaneously: the entire image remains intact until the stone falls upon the feet (representing the fourth and last kingdom), when the whole of it breaks up together,

10 A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him:

thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand

times ten thousand stood before him : the judgement was 11 set, and the books were opened. I beheld then because

Glory sat thereon, and His raiment was brighter than the sun, and whiter than any snow...Fire burnt round about, and a great fire stood beside Hi and no one approacheth Him round about: thousand thousands stand before Him, and every word of His is deed.'

the wheels thereof] The throne is pictured implicitly as a chariot, as in Ez. i. 15—28. The representation of the throne and wheels as being fire is, however, more than is found even in the visions of Ezekiel.

10. a stream of fire...from before him] For 'from before,' cf. v. 24; and on vi. 10. Comp. also Rev. i. 14, ‘his eyes were as a flame of fire.'

thousand thousands] Cf. Deut. xxxiii. 2, R.V. (if the existing Heb. text of line 4 is correct); also i Ki. xxii. 19; Zech. xiv. 5 end, R.V.; Enoch i. 9 (cited, with slight verbal differences (see Charles' ed. p. 327], in Jude 14, 15 (for 'saints' in v. 14, A.V., see the note on Dan. viii. 13]). The present passage is doubtless the source of Enoch xiv. 22 (cited on v. 9), xl. 1 (cited below, p. 106); cf. lx. I, lxxi. 8, 13; and of Rev. V. II.

ministered...stood] Better, were ministering...were standing, the tenses being as in iv. 12.

stood before him] viz. in attendance: cf. for the idiom 1 Ki. x. 8. the judgement was set] i.e. (in accordance with the old English sense of the expression) was seated : the Aram. is lit. sat, `judgement' being used here in a concrete sense for the judges; cf. LXX., Theod., td kpitýplov éká Olev, Vulg. judicium sedit; and see v. 26, shall sit'. The Almighty is represented as holding a court of judgement. For was set in this sense see in A.V., Matth. v. 1 (“when he was set,' i.e. was seated), xxvii. 19; Heb. viii. 1 (R.V. sat down); Ps. ix. 4 (P.B.V), 'thou art set (i.e. hast seated thyself) in the throne that judgest right.' W. A. Wright quotes, from an old writer, “When they were sette' (viz. at table).

and the books were opened] the books in which the deeds of men are recorded-in particular the deeds of the four 'beasts,' representing the four empires. Cf. Rev. xx. 12, •And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne; and books were opened ;...and the dead were judged out of the things which were written in the books, according to their works:' also 2 Esdras vi. 20; Apoc. of Baruch xxiv. I; Ascension of Isaiah (ed. Dillmann, 1877), ix. 22; Enoch xlvii. 3 (cited on p. 106), lxxxix. 70, 71, 76, 77, xc. 20, xcviii. 7, civ. 7,-all passages speaking of the deeds of men being recorded in books, which are afterwards open in heaven. See further Charles's note on Enoch xlvii. 3; and comp. Abhoth ii. 1, 'Know what is above thee, a seeing eye, and a hearing ear, and all thy deeds written in a book. The germ of the representation is to be found most probably in the figurative

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of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame. As concerning the rest 19 of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away : yet

expressions in Is. Ixv. 6 (Behold, it is written before me': cf. Jer. xvii. I); Mal. iii. 16 (cf. Est. vi. 1); Ps. lvi. 8.

11. The beast representing the fourth empire is slain, and utterly destroyed, on account of the blasphemies of Antiochus Epiphanes (v. 8), the idea being that the guilt of the empire culminated in him. The writer thinks of empires only, not of individuals; and it is impossible to say what he pictured to himself as being the fate of the individuals of whom the fourth empire consisted.

I beheld, &c.] The second 'I beheld' is resumptive of the first, after the intervening clause introduced by because--a construction of which there are many examples in Hebrew (e.g. Lev. xvii. 5; Jud. xi. 31; Zech. viii. 23). I beheld till, as v. 9. The clause because, &c., though apparently giving the reason for ‘I beheld,' gives in reality the reason for the beast was slain,' &c.

and his body destroyed] The empire being represented by an animal, its 'body' will correspond to the fabric, or political organization, of the State. This is to be utterly brought to an end.

and he was given to be burned with fire (R.V.)] lit. to the burning of fire (cf. Is. lxiv. 11, lit. ‘has become for the burning of fire), i.e. to complete destruction. It is hardly likely that there is any allusion here to the torments of the wicked after death, for though in parts of Enoch, written probably within 50 years of Daniel (x. 13, xxi. 7-10, xc. 2427), mention is made of a fiery place of punishment for wicked angels and men, had that been intended here it is probable that it would have been indicated more distinctly,—to say nothing of the fact that, as remarked just above, it is the fate of empires, not of individuals, that the writer has in view. Rev. xix. 20, xx. 10 are not sufficient proof that the author of Daniel had the idea here in his mind.

12. the rest of the beasts] Commentators are divided as to whether the three beasts of vv. 4–6, or the seven horns left after the three had been rooted up (v. 8), are intended: but the expression used ("beasts') strongly favours the former interpretation. In the abstract, it is true, the latter interpretation might be deemed the more probable; for, as the beasts' represent successive kings, or kingdoms (vv. 17, 23), the dominion of the first three would naturally be at an end long before the period of the judgement on the fourth, whereas the seven 'horns' might well be conceived as subsisting still. In point of fact, however, the kingdoms, though in reality successive, are in the vision represented as contemporaneous: nothing is said in vv. 3—7 about the disappearance of one beast when a second appears; all continue visible, side by side. So in ch. ii. the four kingdoms represented by the image are destroyed simultaneously: the entire image remains intact until the stone falls upon the feet (representing the fourth and last kingdom), when the whole of it breaks up together.

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was first : that the princes might give accounts unto them, and the king should have no damage. Then this Daniel was preferred above the presidents and princes, because an excellent spirit was in him; and the king thought to set him over the whole realm.

Then the presidents and princes sought to find occasion against Daniel concerning the kingdom ; but they could find none occasion nor fault; forasmuch as he was faithful, neither was there any error or fault found in him. Then said these men, We shall not find any occasion against this Daniel, except we find it against him concerning the 6 law of his God. Then these presidents and princes

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Pers. sār, 'head' chief,' 'prince.' In the O.T. it is found only in this chap. (vv. 2, 3, 4, 6, 7): in the Targums it stands often for the Heb. shățèr, officer, as Ex. v. 6, 10; Deut. i. 15, xx. 5; Josh. i. 10; Prov. vi. 7 (overseer').

was first] was one: so R.V. rightly.

that these satraps might give account unto them] strictly, might be giving account, i.e. might be permanently answerable to them, that the interests and revenues of the king were properly guarded. No such officials are mentioned elsewhere,-except in so far as they may be regarded as the successors of the three Babylonian ministers, presupposed in v. 7, 16, 29. Darius Hystaspis, as a check upon his satraps, appointed in each satrapy an independent military commandant, and a royal 'scribe,' or secretary, whose business it was to report to the king the doings of the satrap (Hdt. iii. 128; Rawl., Anc. Mon. iii. 424).

3. was preferred] distinguished himself, or (R.V.) was distinguished. The root idea of the word is to shine, hence to be illustrious. It is common in Syriac in the sense of praeclare se gessit, representing for instance the Greek διαλάμπειν, ευδοκιμείν, ευδοξείν (Payne Smith, col. 2438). Was preferred' means here was advanced or promoted, in accordance with the old sense of 'prefer,' preserved now only in 'preferment’; see Est. ii. 9; John i. 15, 27; and the Bible WordBook.

princes] satraps. So vv. 4, 6, 7.
an excellent spirit] a surpassing spirit, as v. 12.

4. sought to find occasion, &c.] They were evidently jealous that a man of alien race and creed should be exalted above themselves.

concerning] as touching (R.V.): lit. from the side of. The meaning of course is, any charge of disloyalty, or any remissness or neglect in the discharge of his public office.

error] or negligence : iii. 29.

6. law] dāth, the same Persian word, which is found in ii. 9, 13, 15, and also in vi. 8, 12, 15, and constantly in Esther. Here, as in Ezr. vii. 12, 14, 21, 25, 26, it denotes the Jewish law (Heb. törāh).

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assembled together to the king, and said thus unto him, King Darius, live for ever. All the presidents of the kingdom, 7 the governors, and the princes, the counsellers and the captains, have consulted together to establish a royal statute, and to make a firm decree, that whosoever shall ask a petition of any God or man for thirty days, save of thee, O king, he shall be cast into the den of lions.

6. assembled together] came thronging (A.V. marg.; R.V. marg. came tumultuously). The word occurs several times in the Aramaic of the Targums, where it corresponds to Heb. words signifying to be in commotion or tumult, as Ps. xlvi. 6, 'nations were in tumult,' Ruth i. 9, "and all the inhabitants of the city were in commotion on account of them'; and it occurs once in Heb., Ps. ii. I, 'Why do the nations throng tumultuously?l! The expression is thus a more vivid and graphic one than would be inferred from the rend. of A.V.: the courtiers, in their animosity against Daniel, are represented as flocking tumultuously to the king, for the purpose of gaining his co-operation in their plan. live for ever

see on ii. 4. 7. All the presidents] of course, with the exception of Daniel, who was one of them (v. 2). But the misrepresentation may be meant to be intentional, as though to lead the king to suppose that the proposal had Daniel's approval.

the governors, and the princes, the counsellers and the captains] the praefects (ii. 48), and the satraps, the ministers (iii. 24), and the governors (iii. 2). Cf. the enumeration of officials in iii. 2, 3, 27.

to establish a royal statute] Of course, indirectly,--by prevailing upon the king to take action. A.V. marg. that the king should establish a statute, and make' &c., expresses the meaning more distinctly; but it is a less natural rendering of the Aramaic.

and to make a firm decree] and to make a stringent interdict. • Interdict' (so A. V. marg., and R.V.) is lit. a binding, or restraining; and almost the same word is used in Num. xxx. 2, 3, 4, &c. of a restraining vow (A.V., R.V., 'bond ').. The passive partic. of the cognate verb is common in the Mishna in the sense of 'prohibited.'

a petition] The meaning probably is, not any petition absolutely, but any petition of the nature of a prayer, or request addressed forinally to a superior. The interdict has been deemed an incredible one; but some allowance must be made for what an oriental despot might prescribe in a freak of humour. Nevertheless, it is remarkable that the king should accede so readily to the proposal made to him, without either consulting the minister whose judgement he specially trusted (v. 3), or reflecting upon the difficulties in which it might involve him.

the den of lions] the reference is “to the custom which existed already among the Assyrians, and from them was passed on to the

1 Cf. the cogn. subst. throng, Ps. lv. 14 (so R.V.), lxiv. 2 (R.V. 'tumult,' marg. 'throng').

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