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GENERAL EDITOR FOR THE OLD TESTAMENT.
THE present General Editor for the Old Testament in the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges desires to say that, in accordance with the policy of his predecessor the Bishop of Worcester, he does not hold himself responsible for the particular interpretations adopted or for the opinions expressed by the editors of the several Books, nor has he endeavoured to bring them into agreement with one another. is inevitable that there should be differences of opinion in regard to many questions of criticism and interpretation, and it seems best that these differences. should find free expression in different volumes. He has endeavoured to secure, as far as possible, that the general scope and character of the series should be observed, and that views which have a reasonable. claim to consideration should not be ignored, but he has felt it best that the final responsibility should, in general, rest with the individual contributors.
Principal Abbreviations employed.
KAT....Eb. Schrader, Die Keilinschriften und das A. T., ed. 2, 1883 (translated under the title The Cuneiform Inscriptions and the O.T. 1885, 1888). The references are to the pagination of the original, which is given on the margin of the English translation. KB....Eb. Schrader, Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek (transliterations and translations of Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions), 1889-1900. L.O.T....S. R. Driver, Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament, ed. 6, 1897.
NHWB....M. Levy, Neuhebräisches und Chaldäisches Wörterbuch,
OTJC.2...W. Robertson Smith, The Old Testament in the Jewish
P.S. (or Payne Smith)...R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus.
RP. or RP2... Records of the Past, first and second series, respectively.
Schürer2...E. Schürer, Gesch. des Jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, ed. 2, 1886, 1890 (translated, Edinb. 1890–3); Vol. 2, also, in ed. 3 (2 vols.), 1898.
ZATW....Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, 1881 ff.
For the names of Commentators, &c., see pp. cii-civ.
It has been found difficult to preserve entire consistency in the transliteration of foreign words, especially Babylonian and Assyrian names; but it is hoped that the reader will not be seriously misled in consequence. Familiar names have usually been left unchanged. In other words (or sometimes ch) = n; k = P; s (or g) = Y; } = D.
On the terms 'Excellent' and 'Excellency' in A.V.,
R. V., and P.B.V. of the Psalms.....
Defeat of Egyptians by Nebuchadnezzar at Carchemish.
Fall of Jerusalem.
555 (9 months). LABASHI-MARDUK (Laborisoarchod).
NABU-NA'ID (Nabonnēdus, Nabonidus).
CYRUS. Return of Jews under Zerubbabel.
529-522. CAMBYSES. 522 (7 months). GAUMÂTA (Pseudo-Smerdis). 522-485. DARIUS HYSTASPIS. 485-465. XERXES.
Persian empire overthrown by ALEXANDER THE Great.
Death of Alexander.
249. ANTIOCHUS II receives in marriage Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus.
PTOLEMY III (Euergetes I).
246. SELEUCUS II (Callinicus).
PTOLEMY IV (Philopator).
194-3. Antiochus the Great marries his daughter, Cleopatra, to Ptolemy Epiphanes.
187. SELEUCUS IV (Philopator). |182. PTOLEMY VI (Eupator). 175-164. ANTIOCHUS IV (Epi- 182-146. PTOLEMY VII (Philo
Jason purchases the high-priesthood from Antiochus, ex-
Menelaus, outbidding Jason, becomes high-priest.
§ I. The person of Daniel and the contents of the Book.
ALL that is known of Daniel is contained substantially in the book which bears his name. The Book consists essentially of two parts: (1) a series of narratives (ch. i.—vi.), describing the experiences of Daniel and his companions, in the three reigns of Nebuchadnezzar (ch. i.—iv.), Belshazzar (ch. v.), and Darius the Mede (ch. vi.); and (2) a series of visions (ch. vii.—xii.), with introductions describing the circumstances attending them, purporting to have been seen by Daniel during the reigns of Belshazzar (ch. vii., viii.), Darius the Mede (ch. ix.), and Cyrus (ch. x.-xii.). The principal link connecting the two parts of the book is afforded by chaps. ii. and vii.—the four empires symbolized by the image in Nebuchadnezzar's dream in ch. ii. being the same as the four empires symbolized by the four beasts seen by Daniel in his vision described in ch. vii. The following is an outline of the contents of the Book.
Nebuchadnezzar, having in the third year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah (B.C. 605), laid siege to Jerusalem, and carried away to Babylon several Jewish prisoners, determined shortly afterwards to have a number of noble and promising youths educated in the language and learning of the 'Chaldaeans,'-i.e. of the professors of divination, magic, and astrology in Babylon,—with a