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house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god.

3 And the king spake unto Ashpenaz the master of his

and the vessels he brought, &c.] In the Heb. 'the vessels' is emphatic by its position, and would naturally imply that something different had been mentioned before. As the verse stands, the clause is almost tautologous with the preceding one: at all events, if the 'treasure house of his god' be really a place distinct from the 'house of his god,' the correction is attached very awkwardly. Ewald supposed that some words had fallen out, and proposed to read 'Jehoiakim, king of Judah, with the noblest of the land, and part,' &c. Certainly the transportation of captives is presupposed in v. 3; but the insertion of these words does not relieve the awkwardness of v. 2. It is better, with Marti, to reject the preceding words, (in) the house of his god,' as a gloss, intended originally to define the position of the 'treasure house' of clause b, which has found its way into the text in a wrong place1. Still, the author's Hebrew is often far from elegant, and the anomalous wording of the verse is possibly original.

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3-5. Nebuchadnezzar's purpose to have certain noble and promising youths educated for the king's service.

3. Ashpenaz] No satisfactory explanation of this name has yet been found. Acp in old Persian means a horse (Sansk. açpa); but the name as a whole, in its present form, is not explicable from either Persian or Babylonian. LXX. has Aßieσdpi. The word is not improbably a corrupt form (like 'Holophernes,' in Judith; or 'Osnappar,' Ezra iv. 10).

the master of his eunuchs] Eunuchs were, and still are, common in Oriental Courts; they sometimes attained to great influence with the monarch, and were treated by him as confidential servants. Eunuchs are often represented on the Assyrian monuments, where they are readily recognizable by their bloated and beardless faces (cf. Smith, D. B. s. v.; Rawlinson, Ancient Monarchies*, I. 496—8, III. 221— 223). The master,' or superintendent, of the eunuchs would have the control of the eunuchs employed in the palace, and would naturally hold an important position at court. The principal eunuch, with other eunuchs under him, would have the care of the royal harem; and the training of youths for the service of the king was a duty which would be naturally entrusted to him?. Cf. the prophecy, 2 Ki. xx. 18 (= Is. xxxix. 7); though it is not said that Daniel and his companions were made eunuchs, and it is too much to infer this (as has been done) from the statement that they were put in charge of the 'master of the king's eunuchs' in Persia eunuchs superintended the education of the young princes (Rawl. Anc. Mon., III. 221); and in Turkey, Rycaut states (see the note below), a eunuch had charge of the royal pages.

1 The words were not, it seems, in the original LXX. (see Swete, footnote). 2 In Turkey, as described by Rycaut in 1668 (The Ottoman Empire, p. 35 ff.), the office was divided, the women being under the charge of a black eunuch, called Kuzlir Agasi, and the selected youths who were being educated in the Seraglio as pages for the royal service (together with the white eunuchs employed about the Court) being under the superintendence of a white eunuch, the Capa Aga (p. 25 ff.).

eunuchs, that he should bring certain of the children of Israel, and of the king's seed, and of the princes; children in whom was no blemish, but well favoured, and skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science, and

bring] bring in (R.V.), viz. into the palace (v. 18).

children of Israel] The expression would include, at the time here referred to, men of Benjamin and Levi, as well as of Judah (cf. Ezra i. 5, iv. 1, x. 9), perhaps also men of other tribes who had migrated into the territory of Judah.

and of the seed royal, and of the nobles] If the first ↑ ('and') is to be taken in its obvious sense, the reference must be to members of the royal family and nobility of Babylon (so Prof. Bevan). Most commentators render both (cf. viii. 13; Jer. xxxii. 20; Ps. lxxvi. 7 [A. V. 6]), though that is hardly a sense which it would naturally convey in the present sentence. Perhaps it is best to understand it in the sense of and in particular (cf. viii. 10).

of the seed royal] Lit. seed of royalty, or of the kingdom: so Jer. xli. 1 (=2 K. xxv. 25); Ezek. xvii. 13. Not necessarily the descendants of the reigning 'king.' LXX. ' of the royal race.'

nobles] Heb. partěmim, elsewhere only in Est. i. 3, vi. 9: the Pers. fratama, Sansk. fratema, akin etymologically to pот-εроs, πρῶτος. "The phrase martiyā fratama, 'foremost men,' Occurs several times in the Achaemenian inscriptions" (Bevan).

4. children] youths (R.V.).

blemish] here of physical imperfection, as Lev. xxi. 17, 18, &c.

well favoured] An archaistic English expression for good-looking: so Gen. xxix. 17, xxxix. 6, xli. 2 al. As Mr Wright (Bible Word-Book, s. v. FAVOUR) shews, 'favour' in old English meant face1, so that 'well favoured' means having a handsome face. The Heb. (lit. good in looks) is the same as in Gen. xxiv. 16, xxvi. 7. An Oriental monarch would attach importance to the personal appearance of his attendants.

intelligent in all wisdom, and knowing knowledge, and understanding science] i.e. men of sagacity and intelligence, the combination of synonyms merely serving to emphasize the idea. Cunning' (i.e. kenning) in A.V., R.V., is simply an archaism for knowing, skilful, though the word is used generally where the reference is to some kind of technical knowledge (Gen. xxv. 27; Ex. xxxviii. 23 [where, for 'cunning workman,' read 'designer']; 1 Sam. xvi. 16; 1 Chr. xxv. 7 [not R.V.]; 2 Chr. ii. 7, 13, 14; Jer. ix. 17, x. 9 al.). The modern associations of the word prevent it, however, from being now a good rendering of the Hebrew.

science] In the Heb. a (late) synonym of 'knowledge' (as it is rendered v. 17; 2 Chr. i. 10, 11, 12), and derived from the same root: the word is not to be understood here in a technical sense, but simply

1 Bacon, Essays, xxvII. p. 113, 'As S. James saith, they are as men, that looke sometimes into a glass, and presently forget their own shape, and favour'; Cymbeline, v. 5, 93, 'His favour is familiar to me.'



such as had ability in them to stand in the king's palace, and whom they might teach the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans. And the king appointed them a daily provision of the king's meat, and of the wine which he drank:

as a Latinism for 'knowledge,' used in default of any more colourless synonym.

ability] Properly, power; i.e. capacity, both physical and mental. to stand] to take their place—with a suggestion of the idea of serving, which, with 'before' (see on v. 5), the word regularly denotes.

learning] literature: lit. book(s), writing(s), cf. Is. xxix. 11, 12. and the tongue of the Chaldeans] 'Chaldeans' is used here, not in the ethnic sense, which the word has in other books of the O. T., but to denote the learned class among the Babylonians, i.e. the priests, a large part of whose functions consisted in the study and practice of magic, divination, and astrology, and in whose hands there was an extensive traditional lore relating to these subjects (see more fully below, p. 12 ff.). The word has the same sense elsewhere in the Book of Daniel (ii. 2, 4, 5, 10, iii. 8 (prob.), iv. 7, v. 7, 11). The literature on the subjects named is what is referred to in the present verse. The 'tongue of the Chaldeans' would be Babylonian, a Semitic language, but very different from Hebrew, so that it would have to be specially studied by a Jew. Many of the magical texts preserved in the cuneiform script are also written in the non-Semitic Sumerian (or 'Accadian'); but it is hardly likely that the distinction between these two languages was present to the author.

5. a daily portion of the king's delicacies] Superior food, such as was served at the table of the king himself, was to be provided for the selected youths. It was a compliment to send anyone a portion of food from the table of a king or great man (Gen. xliii. 34, in Egypt; 2 Sam. xi. 8, in Israel: 2 Ki. xxv. 30, in Babylon, may be similar); and at least in Persia the principal attendants of the king, especially his military ones, seem to have had their provision from the royal table (Plut. Quaest. Conv. VII. iv. 5; Athen. iv. 26, p. 145 e, f.). The word rendered 'delicacies' (pathbag) is a peculiar one, found in the O.T. only in Dan.: it is of Persian origin, and passed (like many other Persian words) into Syriac (Payne Smith, Thes. Syr. col. 3086 f.), as well as into late Hebrew. The Persian original would be patibāga, 'offering,' 'tribute' (from pati, Sanskr. prati, Greek Tori, Tρотi, to, and bag, tribute, Sk. bhaga, portion). The Sansk. pratibhaga actually occurs, and means 'a share of small articles, as fruit, flowers, &c., paid daily to the Rája for household expenditure1.' The Pers. patibāga originally, no doubt, denoted similarly choice food offered to the king, though in Heb. and Syriac pathbag was used more widely of

1 Gildemeister, as quoted by Max Müller, ap. Pusey, p. 565.

2 Dinon in his Persica, writing c. 340 B. C., says (ap. Athen. xi. 503) that ToriBages (which must be the same word) denoted a repast of cakes and wine, such as was prepared for the kings of Persia (ἔστι δὲ ποτίβαζις ἄρτος κρίθινος καὶ πύρινος ὀπτὸς καὶ κυπαρίσσου στέφανος καὶ οἶνος κεκραμένος ἐν ᾧῷ χρυσῷ οὗ αὐτὸς βασιλεὺς πίνει).

so nourishing them three years, that at the end thereof they . might stand before the king. Now among these were of the 6 children of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: unto whom the prince of the eunuchs gave names: for he7 gave unto Daniel the name of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach ; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego.

choice food, or delicacies, in general. The word recurs in vv. 8, 13, 15, 16, xi. 26.

and that they should be nourished] or brought up: lit. made great: so Is. i. 2, xxiii. 4 al.

stand before the king] as his attendants, to wait upon him: Deut. i. 38; 1 Ki. x. 8, xii. 8.

6, 7. Among the noble youths thus selected were four belonging to the tribe of Judah, who are named specially as forming the subject of the following narratives.

6. Mishael] 'Who is what God is?' (cf. Michael, 'Who is like God?'), a name found also in Ex. vi. 22, Lev. x. 4 (of a cousin of Moses'); and in Neh. viii. 4.

7. And the prince of the eunuchs gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave, &c.] as R.V. 'Prince' (Heb. sar, i.e. here, governor, superintendent, 1 Ki. ix. 22 ['rulers'], xxii. 26) is a synonym of the rab of v. 3 (cf. Gen. xxxvii. 36 with Jer. xxxix. 9). The practice of giving a person a new name, when admitted into the public service of a foreign country, is well attested in the case of Egypt (see not only Gen. xli. 45, but also Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 517 f.), and was probably usual elsewhere. There is an example, though it is not quite parallel, quoted from the reign of the Assyrian king, Esarhaddon, when Neco's son was made viceroy of Athribis under the Assyrian name of Nabu-ušêzib-anni (Nebo saves me'). In the present instance the change has the effect in each case of obliterating the name of God: Daniel, God is my judge'; Hananiah, 'Yah is gracious'; Mishael, 'Who is what God is?'; Azariah, 'Yah hath holpen.'

Belteshazzar] i.e. balâtsu-uşur, 'protect his life!'; probably elliptical for Bêl-balâtsu-uşur, 'Bel, protect his life!' The name (which recurs ii. 26, iv. 8, 9, 18, 19, v. 12) is quite distinct from Belshazzar (see on V. I).

Shadrach] Of uncertain meaning, but explained plausibly by Friedr. Delitzsch as Shudur-Aku, 'the command of Aku' (Aku being the Sumerian equivalent of Sin, the Semitic name of the Moon-god); cf. the proper name Ķibit-Ishtar, 'the word, or command, of Ishtar.'

Meshach] Explained by Delitzsch, somewhat less satisfactorily, as a hybrid word, partly Hebrew and partly Babylonian, properly Misha-Aku, 'Who is what Aku is?', cf. Mishael above, and the Babylonian names Mannu-ki-Rammân, 'Who is like Rammân (Rimmon)?', and Mannu-ki-ilu, 'Who is like God?'

Abed-nego] generally recognized as a corruption of 'Abed-nebo, 'ser


But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king's meat, nor with. the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the 9 prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself. Now God had brought Daniel into favour and tender love with

vant of Nebo' (Is. xlvi. 1). Proper names, compounded with 'Abd (or Ebed), 'servant,' are common in most Semitic languages; and, though it is not the usual word for servant in Babylonian, Babylonian names compounded with it occur. Indeed, the name Abed-nebo itself has been found in a bilingual (Assyr. and Aram.) inscription (Schrader, KAT2 ad loc.); it is also, as Prof. Bevan remarks, met with as that of a heathen Syrian long after the Christian era (Cureton's Ancient Syriac Documents, p. 14).

8-16. The loyalty to their faith shewn by the four Jewish youths. 8-10. Daniel and his companions crave to be allowed not to use the provision supplied from the royal table. The meat might be that of animals not slaughtered in the proper manner (Deut. xii. 23, 24), or of animals prohibited to the Jews as food (Lev. xi. 4-7, 10-12, 13—19, 20); while both the meat and the wine might have been consecrated to the Babylonian gods by portions having been offered to them in sacrifice, so that to partake of either would be tantamount to the recognition of a heathen deity (cf. 1 Cor. x. 20, 27—29). The Jews, especially in later times, attached great importance to the dietary laws, and were also very scrupulous in avoiding acts which, even indirectly, might seem to imply the recognition of a heathen deity. Antiochus Epiphanes, in his endeavour (B. C. 168) to Hellenize the Jews, sought to compel them both to sacrifice to heathen deities and to partake of unclean food; and resistance to his edict was a point on which the utmost stress was laid by the loyal Jews (1 Macc. i. 47, 48, 62, 63; cf. 2 Macc. vi. 18 ff., vii. 1). Comp. also 2 Macc. v. 27; Add. to Esther xiv. 17; Judith xii. 1, 2 (see x. 5); Tobit i. 10, 11 (where Tobit says that when he and his companions were taken captive to Nineveh, 'all my brethren and those that were of my kindred did eat of the bread of the Gentiles, but I kept myself from eating'). Josephus (Vita 3) speaks of certain priests who, being sent to Rome, partook on religious grounds of nothing but figs and nuts. For the abrogation of the principle, in the new dispensation, see Mark vii. 19 (Ř.V.), Acts x. 9-16,-comparing, however, also, I Cor. viii. 4-13.

with the king's delicacies] as v. 5.

purposed in his heart] lit. laid (it) on his heart, i.e. gave heed (Is. xlvii. 7, lvii. 11, Mal. ii. 2). 'Purposed' is too strong.

9. And God made Daniel to find kindness and compassion in the sight of, &c.] lit. 'gave Daniel to kindness and compassion before': exactly the same idiom which occurs (without 'kindness and') in I Ki. viii. 50 (whence Ps. cvi. 46). The pluperfect ('had brought') is grammatically incorrect: the meaning is that the kindness was experienced immediately after the request. Cf., though the expressions are different, the similar case of Joseph, Gen. xxxix. 21.

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