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quirements, may become a teacher of the deaf, by the perusal of the books published on the subject, or merely by his own experience, and mistakes, and reflections. The present master of the Liverpool deafand-dumb school, Mr. Anderson (formerly of the Glasgow school), was not regularly taught at any previously existing institution, though he visited several, and, amongst others, that in Dublin; and yet his pupils advance as rapidly as in other schools.

Now, as to the monopoly of their knowledge, of which you accuse all the teachers of the existing schools, I need only inform you, that for a moderate remuneration for the trouble, a cousin of my own, who had three deaf-and-dumb children, got a young lady educated, as governess for them, by my friend Mr. Humphreys, the master of the national Institution at Dublin; that a gentleman, who is now a private teacher in Ireland, another who has now given up the profession, and another who is the present master of the Birmingham deaf-and-dumb asylum, were also educated by him.

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You ask your correspondent, triumphantly, "Is he not aware, that reading and writing, &c. &c. are objects perfectly attainable without articulation?" Of course; but does this prove, that being taught to speak, in addition to reading and writing, is a bad thing? Because a child can be taught two things, with out a third, is surely no objection

* We never accused "all" the teachers

of the existing schools of endeavouring to secure a monopoly the charge would have been unjust;—but that such a spirit has actuated some we know to be a fact. Why, for example, we would ask, is not the London Deaf-and-Dumb School thrown open like the Central National, or Infant, or Lancasterian Schools, to teach the " tem" to all persons who wish to acquire it for practical purposes? Half a score teachers might thus be instructed in a few weeks or months at a trifling charge, who might open day-schools or cheap boarding schools in various parts of the country for these unhappy outcasts.


to his learning also that third. You might infuse into a hearing child's ear a correct knowledge of nature, himself, and religion, without ever allowing him to read or write a word, or even to learn to speak, or to see; yet this would not prove, that teaching him vocal utterance, or allowing him vision, would be of no use. Just so, you might, by means of a deaf child's eye, teach him to read printed or written language, without allowing him to learn to write; or, by means solely of the finger alphabet, you might communicate to him all the stores of language, without allowing him to learn to copy written words with his hand, or to read printed words with his eye; or you might, by means of his own natural language of signs alone, perfected and methodized, communicate to him all knowledge; yet, this would not prove, that the finger alphabet, pictures, writing, reading, and books, were of no use to him, any more than the possibility of teaching a deaf child the treasures of language, without articulation, proves, that it should be despised, and cashiered without consideration.

That having been taught to speak is sometimes of the greatest use to the deaf and dumb, under circumstances in which signs cannot be used, I, as a medical man, can testify, from having attended them in illness, when they were too weak to use their arms in signs, or their fingers in the manual alphabet, but yet were able to speak their pains, wants, fears, hopes; and that they can sometimes attain to a wonderful perfection in speaking, and also in reading the lips of those who speak to them, is proved by a hundred instances; for example, the celebrated case related by Bishop Burnet, which I need not now quote. Neither will I mention any case, that came under my own notice, except one. Some years since, I met, at a table d'hôte in Paris, a deaf-anddumb gentleman, the Baron De Montval, a miniature painter, who

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spoke so well that I understood instruction and intercourse of the him perfectly at once; and, though deaf?" And, "whether there are I was a foreigner, speaking his lan- not tens of hundreds of thousands guage, he understood almost all that of the common population, in these I said, by watching my mouth:- kingdoms, who cannot write, nor But it is not enough, merely to dis- read written or printed words? prove the assertion, which you and And, if these things be so, surely it some of your former correspondents is of importance to teach the exceshave made, as to the inutility of sively small minority, the deaf, to teaching articulation; it shall be articulate words, which, if spoken in my business, now, to prove its im- the ear of any individual in those portance, and to set the question, I immense majorities, the hearing trust, at rest in this country. public, will at once be comprehended by him;-otherwise the former will, even though well taught in the meaning of language, often have no means of communicating their thoughts to the latter.

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And first, I suppose, there can be no doubt, as to the answer which would be given to me, if I were to ask you, or any man, this question: "You can now both hear and speak; suppose disease or accident to destroy your power of hearing, would you like, at the same time, to lose the faculty of speech?" or this, Suppose that a paralytic stroke deprived you of the sense of hearing, and the command of your tongue, at once; would you, because the physicians told you that the recovery of the former was hopeless, not think that the restoration of the latter would be a blessing?" And, if the And, if the preservation, or restitution, of the privilege of vocal utterance be a benefit to a man who in adultage becomes deaf, how can its acquisition be an injury to him whose ears are congenitally insentient? or rather, how multifold must not its advantage be to him who never had, like you and me, an auditory sense, or an association of sounds, to assist him in establishing and maintaining, in his mind, the connexions between arbitrary verbal signs and the ideas or objects to which men have conventionally affixed them?

Neither need I doubt the answer that will be given to these questions:-"Whether the number of persons in this country, who understand the meaning of the gesturul signs, made use of by the deaf and dumb, when they meet them for the first time, is not very small?"" Whether more than about

one person, out of a thousand, understands the finger alphabet, so much used in the

It is needless to mention the

thousand circumstances of casual converse, difficulty, hurry, want or danger, &c. &c. either to himself or others, in which a deaf person's being able to speak, so as to be understood in an instant, even by a person with averted eyes, or inattentive, may be of use to both. It is needless at present to inquire, whether the assertion of the celebrated physician of the Vienna Imperial and Royal Deaf-and-Dumb School, that diseases of the lungs were much more infrequent among the pupils, who had been taught to speak there among the rest, can be disproved, qualified, or confirmed. But it is of importance to prove, that not only where acquired and used is articulation of use, but that even in the process of acquisition, it is collaterally helpful to the other parts of their tuition*.

The public are not in general sufficiently aware, that the only reason, why a deaf-born child is dumb, is, that he does not hear

To the whole of this part of our correspondent's argument, we need only reply, that we do not by any means object practicable, to other attainments, though, to articulation being superadded, where from its necessary imperfection, we are not very sanguine as to its great value; but what we lament is, that the supposed necessity for making this a part of the sysand dumb, who cannot obtain access to tem prevents a great majority of the deaf the asylums, receiving any education at all.

words to imitate; nor that, in such a child, the organs of speech have no defect whatever, but are merely not called into action; nor that no such person is perfectly mute, for they all articulate several of the vowel sounds and even some syllables, in spite of their deafness, and prove the necessary effects of their breath, and of mental emotions, on their windpipe, larynx, and mouth; nor that a child, who hears, can be corrected in his mispronunciation of various letters, by making him watch the position and motion of your tongue, lips, teeth, &c. &c. while articulating them correctly (as I have often proved with one of my own children).

By making a deaf child feel, with his hand, the vibration in one's larynx, which causes voice, and the direction or force, with which one at the same time breathes out, through the mouth or nose; and watch with his eye the posture or movement of one's lips, teeth, tongue, and soft palate, while pronouncing each of the vowels or consonants, simply or combined, his organs of speech will learn to act like his teacher's, by being subjected to his power of imitating what he sees, as yours and mine did by being directed by a similar power of mimicking what we heard.

It is quite a mistake to think, that they who advocate the instruction of the deaf mute in speak ing, make it a sine qua non in every individual case. It is no less a misconception to suppose, that they make it the sole means of tuition in language. It is not doing them justice to believe, that no other part of their education is commenced until this is attained. The truth is, it is only one out of many means of hastening their acquisition and practical use of our words, instead of their own signs; its attain ment is additional, collateral, adminicular and perfective; not solitary, exclusive, precursory, or pa


ramount. No intelligent teacher of the deaf thinks of making all other parts of instruction wait, until his pupil has acquired the power of speech, any more than the master of a school for common children will require them to write a good hand, before he teaches them to read, or to count, or to understand grammar. Besides all this, what parent does not know, that he can teach his children many things, by speaking to them, even while they are so young as to be unable to articulate; or by shewing objects or pictures to their eyes, while they as yet know not the names for those which we utter in their hearing.

There are two other collateral advantages in teaching the dumb. to speak: one is, that, after they have learned to articulate pretty distinctly and correctly, each pupil in a class can repeat the lessons, which he has got by heart for the master, or answer his questions, in a fifth part of the time that it would take to spell them on his fingers, and in a fiftieth part of the time that writing them on a slate would require. Every schoolmaster or parental teacher knows, that what saves time facilitates and expedites education. Another advantage is, that the habit of voluntarily moving his organs of speech, in the manner requisite to produce articulation (of which motion he is conscious, though he cannot hear its effect-voice which we hear,) establishes an additional association in his mind, between the objects and their names, between the words and his ideas.

Now, he not only sees the word written, or printed, or spelled on the fingers, but he feels the alphabetical articulation of it by his own mouth. What wants he then of all that we possess? Nothing but the power of hearing the sounds which we utter, (which yet, if well taught, his eyes can often read from our lips;) for, as to those which he himself utters,


though he cannot hear them, yet he feels their cause, and is intimate with their organic formation.

I might produce many other proofs of the utility of articulation; but I trust that what I have already said will be sufficient to prove, that, to enable a deaf person's eyes to read the lips of others, and to enable a dumb person's mouth to speak to others' ears, in addition to the instruction of his mind in the meaning and syntax of words, remedies, as far as mere man can, the effects of his affliction. Only He, who gave to them, by miracle of power and grace, in an instant, hearing, voice, and the use of speech, without education, and the association of ideas and words, and the power of the will to direct their organs of speech, without gradation, or repetition, or habit; and knowledge, faith, and gratitude, without a wish or merit of their own, only he can do more. He does and will.


I should not have omitted to mention, that deaf children anxiously wish to be taught to speak; and that I have myself known a deaf boy who was constantly talking aloud to himself, while walking or playing alone in the field attached to the institution.

I shall end by an anecdote of the boy to whom I before alluded; and whom I took as an orphan, in 1815, out of a beggar's Asylum in Dublin, utterly ignorant of even a single word. He has been since well taught in language by my friend Mr. Humphreys, master of the institution at Claremont, near Dublin. My wife asked him, a short time since, one evening, this question," Are you happy?" To which he replied viva voce in distinctly articulated words. "I have God for my Father ;-I have Jesus Christ for my Redeemer ;-I have heaven for mine inheritance ;-I am happy."

That you, and I, and all the deaf, and all who love them, may join in

and feel the true logic of his answer, is the sincere wish of, Your obedient servant,

C. E. H. ORPEN, M. D. Secretary to the National Institution, for the Education of Deaf-and-dumb Children of the Poor, in Ireland, at Claremont near Dublin.

Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. THE majority of your readers are probably acquainted with the singular Unitarian Epistle preserved by Leslie, in his "Socinian Controversy discussed;" but it may not be so generally known that, the authenticity of that letter having been disputed by Dr. Priestley, Dr. Horsley verified it by collation with the original in the library at Lambeth palace. Those of your readers who have Leslie's book at hand may refer, for the epistle itself, to that work; for the sake of others, I shall give the substance of it from Dr. Gregory's "Letters on the Christian Religion."

A negotiation was opened, in the reign of Charles II. on the part of our English Unitarians, with Ameth Ben Ameth, ambassador of the emperor of Morocco at the English court, in order to form an alliance with the Mohammedan prince for the more effectual propagation of the Unitarian principles. The two Unitarian divines who undertook this singular treaty, addressed the ambassador, and the Musselmen of his suite, as "votaries and fellowworshippers of the sole supreme Deity." They returned thanks to God, that he had preserved the emperor of Morocco and his subjects in the excellent knowledge of the one only Sovereign God, who hath no distinction, nor plurality of persons, and in many other wholesome doctrines. They said that they with their pens defend the faith of one supreme God; and that God raised up Mohammed to do the same with the sword, as a scourge on idolizing

Christians. They therefore, styled themselves fellow-champions with the Mohammedans for these truths. They offered their assistance to purge the Koran of certain corruptions and interpolations, which, after the death of Mohammed, had crept into his papers, of which the Koran was composed; for of Mohammed they thought too highly to suppose that he could be guilty of the many repugnances which are to be found in the writings which go under his name. This work they declared themselves willing to undertake, "for the vindication of Mohammed's glory." They intimated that the corrections which they would propose would render the Koran more consistent; not with itself only, but with the Gospel of Christ, of which they say Mohammed pretended to be but a preacher.They told the ambassador, that the Unitarian Christians formed a great and considerable people. To give weight to the assertion, they enumerated the heresiarchs of all ages who have opposed the Trinity, from Paulus Sarmosatensis, down to Faustus Socinus and the leaders of the Polonian Fraternity. They celebrated the modern tribes of Arians, as asserters of the proper unity of God; and they closed the honourable list with the Mohammedans themselves. All these, they said, maintain the faith of one God: and "why should we forget to add you Mohammedans, who also consent with us in the belief of the only one supreme Deity?" Such is the substance of a letter which they presented to the ambassador, with some Latin manuscripts respecting the differences between Christianity and the Mohammedan religion, and containing an ample detail of the Unitarian tenets. They applied to the Mussulman as to a person of known discernment in spiritual and sublime matters: and they entreated him to communicate the import of their manuscripts to the consideration of the fittest persons among his countrymen.

Dr. Horsley, in whose controversial writings with Dr. Priestley this epistle had been inserted (Letter 16, p. 307, ed. 3.) by way of stamping its authenticity, has added a note, in which he says, that in consequence of Dr. Priestley's questioning the veracity of it, he examined the archbishop's library at Lambeth, from whence the copy was originally taken, where he found it in a thin folio, under the mark 673, among the codices MSS. Tenisoniani; and entered in the catalogue, under the article Socinians, by the title of "Systema Theologia Socinianæ." On the preceding leaf are the following remarks:

"These are the original papers which a cabal of Socinians in London offered to present to the ambassador of the king of Fez and Morocco, when he was taking leave of England, August 1682. The said ambassador refused to receive them, after having understood that they concerned religion. The agent of the Socinians was Monsieur Virzé. Sir Charles Cotterell, Knt., Master of the Ceremonies, then present, desired he might have them, which was granted; and he brought them and gave them to me, Thomas Tenison, then Vicar of St. Martin's-in-thefields, Middlesex."

Dr. Horsley adds, by way of further confirmation, "I do most solemnly aver, that I have this day (January 15, 1789,) compared the letter to Ameth Ben Ameth, as published by Dr. Leslie, in his Socinian Controversy discussed, with the MS. in the archbishop's library, and find that the printed copy, with the exception of some trivial typographical errors, which in no way affect the sense, and are such as any reader will discover and correct for himself, is exactly conformable to the MS. without the omission or addition of a single word."

F. S.

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