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true condition before us. I would, I do, repent and humble my soul before God, and confess my sins to him." After a short interval, during which he had been employed fervently in mental prayer, he remarked with energy, and with joy in his countenance, "What blessed hope do I now derive from my stedfast faith in the atonement of Jesus Christ! What a holy confidence and support I now feel!What an all-sufficient expiation for all truly repented sin, in the blood of the cross! I wonder that any person can doubt or deny the atonement of Christ; as without it there is no hope for man, sinful as he is by nature and by daily practice, and an unprofitable servant at the very best. My faith now supports me in the prospect of death; and the nearer I approach my latter end, the stronger it grows. I have no hope, but in the blood of the atonement. Christ is my only hope of glory. I have done much and laboured hard; and though man has disregarded me, and I have received neither notice nor favour from the world, yet I do not repent of my labours nor expense; but as I believe it to be the cause of God and of truth, I do rejoice and am thankful that I was first disposed to labour, and that I have been spared to labour so long, in a cause so important to the eternal happiness of mankind, and for the glory of God. But I have nothing to boast of or to depend upon, but the alone merits of Him whom I have faithfully endeavoured to magnify as the Redeemer of man, and as the God of our salvation."

At another time, while suffering severe pain, he observed to me, with a look that indicated his enjoyment of peace in his soul, "I have a

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was still vigorous, his memory was correct, and all his faculties were lively and strong. His natural and playful cheerfulness was still maintained, even amidst his increasing weakness and pain. His Christian patience and holy fortitude were most exemplary, though his sufferings were extreme and protracted. Though for many days he could rest only for a few minutes in one position, yet not a single murmur escaped him. At one time, indeed, there appeared for a short period something like impatience; and he said, "O, when will the end be! O, come, Lord, to deliver me! How will human nature bear up under all this weight of suffering!" But, soon checking himself, as if conscious of a spirit of impatience rising in the mind, he said, "All the days of my appointed time will I wait till my change come. In patience may I possess my soul! Thy will, O Lord, be done." When, from extreme pain, his perspiration was excessive, and the hand of a beloved friend was wiping the big drops from his forehead, he remarked with much feeling, "My dear Saviour sweat drops of blood for my sins, and he had no kind hand of friendship to wipe them from his brow."-Three days before his death, after a very severe struggle with excruciating pain, he exclaimed with a holy triumph, "The bitterness of death is now passedall is peace-I see visions of glory. How clear and bright is the way before me! How glorious to join the choir of the blessed above! The end will be rest and glory. I know that my Redeemer liveth. I am now looking by faith to him who is our life and resurrection. His rod and staff, they comfort, they do comfort, my soul."

For the last three days of his life, he was mercifully relieved from his extreme sufferings, and was able to remain in any position with ease and composure. He gradually grew weaker every hour. He spent much of his remaining time in secret and

ejaculatory prayer to God, and his soul appeared to hold happy communion with his heavenly Father. This holy frame of mind was evident from his uplifted hands, the motion of his lips, and the solemnity of his countenance. His manner was strikingly impressive and affectionate to all around him. He exhorted his children to live in love and peace, and commended them, and all his friends, to the mercy of God; and repeatedly expressed his "hope, that their children would repay them by their duty and affectionate attention, that which they had so kindly manifested towards him." He charged his son to complete the edition of his "Improved Extracts then in the press; and he felt "confident that he might rely on his honour and love for the truth, to discharge all his debts, and to pay all due demands on him for paper and printing." He gave directions also to him in what manner to proceed with the index; and made a great effort, the day only before he died, for that purpose. After this exertion, nature seemed to be quite exhausted, and he sunk into the arms of his attendants.

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He was carried back to his bed, from whence he was to remove no more till death. He remained perfectly tranquil, spoke but little, and expired in peace. He "died in the faith." "Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord; yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours, and their works do follow them."

Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer.

I was greatly, though painfully, interested while perusing, in your Numbers for last November and December, the Review of the Geneva and Canton-de-Vaud Controversies. No person who respects the memory of that bright and shining light of Geneva, the venerable Reformer, John Calvin, can read the account of the modern CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 302.

proceedings in that city, and some other parts of Switzerland, without the most poignant regret. A spirit of opposition has been excited against the distinguishing doctrines of the Gospel; and that church, which was so long regarded as a bulwark set for the defence of the truth, now appears to labour from the press and the pulpit, by synods and decrees, to undermine the faith which once it was so valiant in asserting and maintaining. On the other hand, I rejoice to hear of a powerful opposition made to the alarming advances of false doctrine by Christian advocates, who, like St. Paul, would not give place to the incursions of error, no, not for an hour; and who, I doubt not, had it been requisite, would in the cause of truth, submit to the severest pri vations, or, even, by the sacrifice of their lives, have added to the number of the noble army of martyrs.

In the present state of human infirmity, and amidst alternations of gratification and sorrow, we are often called upon to rejoice with trembling; and I must confess, that such have been my feelings even on this occasion. Several of the publications of the zealous advocates of truth have I read with benefit, delight, and gratitude; but one-The Conventicle of Rolle, by M. Malan— which has lately been sent me by a lady who received it when at Geneva, has considerably damped the satisfaction I had experienced, and awakened my apprehensions, lest our great adversary satan should gain an advantage unawares over the friends of true religion in that country. He often succeeds when by semblances of Divine truth, by exaggerated statements of acknowledged verities, by unguarded expressions from the lips or writings of accredited excellence, he can. insinuate and associate an unsuspected sanction of injurious sentiment, of which the well-intentioned abettors have not the least suspicion. The following observations which I L

made impromptu on the tract in question, were not designed to be published; but some of my friends, who have read them, being of opinion that the circulation of them might be beneficial, have persuaded me to submit them, if approved, for the perusal of your readers.


ROLLE, RY THE REV. C. MALAN. The author appears to be a man of lively, tender sensibility, of great powers of imagination, of a candid, affectionate spirit, deeply impressed with the love of God in the Lord Jesus Christ, and animated by a zealous desire to do all the good in his power to the souls and bodies of his fellow-creatures.

It must therefore be premised, that the following remarks are not intended to detract from his character as a Christian or a minister; they are dictated with respect and affection, and are only designed to guard the reader against some specious, but, as the writer conceives, injurious and unscriptural, positions maintained in the tract. The author appears to me not aware of the tendency of his own positions. With a just and avowed abhorrence of Antinomianism, and an affectionate and earnest zeal for practical religion (in proof of which see his second position, p. 31, entitled, "No Salvation without Works,") the tenor of his book still maintains positions, which, in their tendency, relax the necessity of repentance and practical faith.

1. The frontispiece and its explanation are not, to my mind,

* "I asked for a pencil, and represented my thoughts upon the subject, by an emblem of which I shall give you a description:

"In the midst of a vast desert of sand, I drew a large and towering rock, upon which I inscribed the following motto, The rock which is Christ.' Upon the top of the rock I sketched the foundation of a temple, and wrote Christ is the only foundation which can be laid.' I put steps upon the foundation, and upon these steps the bases of pillars, which were placed all

satisfactory. None of the sects specified are built, as sects, though individuals among them are, on the rock Christ; if they were, they would not be overthrown (Matt. vii. 24): nor does this medley of sentiments constitute "the com`munion of saints," but, on the contrary, rather undermines it; and the motto one Lord, one faith, one baptism, is, I think, inapplicable. All that St. Paul designed to shew was, that there were ministers professing to preach Christ, who added to the holy doctrines their own superstitions, here called hay, stub-ble, &c.; but, strictly and accurately speaking, these heretical sentiments were not built on the rock Christ, any more than the conceit of the real presence or papal infallibility are built on that sacred rock. I forbear this criticism; the simile is overstrained; and it is extremely difficult to pursue similies with consistent allegory. M. Malan probably only meant to say, what is perfectly just, that there are true disciples of Christ to be found amongst all the denominations of Christians he has specified; and that these constitute the real spiritual temple, as distin


round the edifice. The shafts of some of others of gold, others of silver, some of these pillars were of precious stones, wood, hay, stubble; and they had inscribed upon them the names of the different divisions of the external church, such as the copalians, Calvinists, Presbyterians, MeMoravians, Catholics, Lutherans, Episthodists, Baptists, Quakers, &c. &c. Upon all the columns, I placed the entablaI wrote he who has Christ has life.' I ture, and upon the front of the temple, then proceeded to erect the cupola, so as to rest upon the whole extent of the temple, and I inscribed around it, these words, The communion of saints.' Upon the ball which was placed on the summit of the cupola, I laid the Holy Bible, with an inscription that, from this height alone, one can judge of the symmetry of the edifice; and as the place is elevated, and the wind of temptation constantly violent, 1 there planted the cross of the Saviour, to which we must cling if we would maintain a firm footing. To this cross I attached the banner of salvation, with the following motto, 'one Lord, one faith, one baptism.' The edifice was now completed."

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guished from those who are building on the sandy foundation of human merit.

2. There is a defect of definition throughout the book. I discover no distinct statement of the nature of faith; there is scarcely a syllable respecting the nature and duty of repentance ;-and even love to God and Christian obedience are clothed more in the style of rhapsody than stated as practical duties. Under this head I may remark, that the author's proposition (p. 31), "no works in order to salvation,” is not correct. It ought to be, no works in order to JUSTIFICATION. The proposition is contrary to Scripture; for the sacred Scriptures assert, "WORK out your salvation" (Phil. ii. 12). "We labour to be accepted" (2 Cor. v. 9). "If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments." "He that doeth, &c. shall enter the king dom of heaven."

3. The author's exhibition of faith (p. 32, &c.) is fallacious. Faith in God must have respect to all which God declares and commands. The manifestation of God to Abraham involved a promise and a command. The promise was (Gen. xv. 1.) I am thy shield, and (5) so shall thy seed be. The command was, Walk before me, and be thou perfect. (Gen. xvii. 1-7, &c.) M. Malan exhorts (p. 34, line 5), "Believe in God, as Abraham believed"-and yet he has given no definition of what the faith of Abra

ham was. Faith believes the promise, obeys the precept, and receives comfort and edification from both.

4. It is erroneous and dangerous to assert, that faith consists in believing and applying the promises of the Gospel, as if they were spoken of God, absolutely, personally, and individually to ourselves. The promises of the Gospel are of a general, and also an individual, application.

The Bible declares, God loved the world; Christ is a propitiation for the sins of the whole world; God sent not his Son to condemn the

world, but that the world through Him might be saved (John iii. 14— 16; and 1 John ii. 1, 2). These promises are all of general application; it is the duty of all men to believe them, to repent, and trust in the Son of God (Acts xvii. 30; 1 John iii. 23). In proportion to the humble consciousness which I may possess, that I do believe the holy Scriptures to be the word of God; that I do believe these general promises therein exhibited; that I do repent and turn to God; that I do trust in the name of the Son of God for pardon, and acceptance through his death and merits; and that I do endeavour to live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present evil world; in proportion to the degree of this humble consciousness of faith, repentance, trust in Christ, love, and obedience,-I may be assured, I may really believe, that this promise refers to me, and that I am a child of God, and an heir of glory, through Divine grace and special mercy.

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5. It is unscriptural and dangerous to speak of salvation as already granted and obtained. For instance (tract, p. 35), "I am then saved." (p. 37) "Jesus has saved me on his cross.' "It is finished-all is accomplished" (p. 47). "That you have been saved" (p. 56); and (p. 98) " You believe then that you are saved?" The sacred Scriptures never speak of salvation as already obtained, but simply as an object of hope and future expectation. "He that believeth shall be saved." (Mark xvi. 16.) “He that endureth to the end shall be saved." These Scriptures speak of salvation, not as a matter of present possession, but of eventual and conditional attainment: for example, "If ye do these things, ye shall never fall, &c. (2 Pet. i. 10.)

The book contains contradictory positions: for example (p. 69), "In order to a person's being assured that he is on the way to heaven...he must be found in the path of sanctification. This is the track, &c." Now,

does not this position make sanctification the evidence of justification? and this position is all I contend for. Again (p. 74), the author demands with equal truth, "Who are to abound most in good works, if not those who have felt and believed that this is the example which their Saviour has left them to imitate, and who know that the day is at hand, in which glory, honour, and immortality will be conferred by God upon those who, adding to faith virtue, to virtue knowledge, to knowledge temperance, to temperance patience, to patience godliness, to godliness brotherly love, to brotherly love kindness, charity,-shall enjoy, in thus making their calling and election sure, an abundant entrance into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ? The practical exhortation that follows is also true and excellent. Again (p. 79); "Be assured then that you belong to the Saviour, because you believe, as Abraham believed. Be confirmed in this assurance by the sincerity of your obedience, by the abundance of your good works."

The observations pp. 80, 81, I think exceptionable. I quote the author's words without comment.

"But, perhaps, my dear friends, this very natural objection will occur to one of you-May not the Christian experience so deplorable a fall, that the bond of love which unites him to God may be broken, and thus the sinner be deprived of grace?' The Holy Spirit has already answered, That neither death, nor life, (and it is in the Christian's life that the fault in question is found,) nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, (and this fault would belong to things present,) nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God; which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.' And yet, they will say, What if David had died before his return to God, and Peter during his denial? But did they die in such circumstances?

That is the question. 'Did God permit them to die? God, He who has said, I will not leave thee nor forsake thee; did he forsake them?""

The allegory of the Traveller, which follows to explain the foregoing remarks, is far from correct. "An irresistible power," says the writer, "hurries the unhappy fugitive into the interior of the edifice." The expression "irresistible power," is not Scriptural. The Hebrews "resisted the Holy Ghost;" the sinner here described has been made willing in the day of God's power.

The remark, that, "however deplorable are the falls of the believer, they only happen within the house under his Father's roof," contains a most dangerous sentiment. Alas! how many have "believed for a time,” given every evidence of piety, and after all become apostates

Again (p. 99*); the transfer of our sin and guilt to Christ is not Scriptural: our Saviour suffered whatever was adequate to effect our pardon; but our sins were never

• As I would not willingly misrepresent the respected author, I give his own words in a note.

Min. "Tell me, dear child, if it were possible that I could take the burden of all the sins you ever committed, would it

still lie upon you?"

Eldest. "Certainly not, sir; you would be answerable for them, and not I."

Min. "And if, after I had taken upon me all your sins,-but observe, my dears, that I say all, without excepting a single one, if God were to punish these sins according to their deserts, who would undergo the punishment?

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Eldest. "Undoubtedly you, sir, as you took upon you all my sins.' Min. " And, my dear child, would you be punished, that is to say, a second time, for the same sins?"

Eldest. "Unquestionably not, sir." Min. "You are right; for we cannot be twice punished for only one fault. Would you then be pardoned?

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Eldest. " Certainly, sir, since you were so good as to suffer in my place.

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Min. "Well, my dear child, think of the goodness of the Saviour Jesus, in taking upon him your sins, and in suffering the punishment, all the punishment, which was in your place, the curse of God, which due on account of them. He has endured, ought to have fallen on you.'

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