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the northern than in the southern division of Ireland, and that in a very large proportion."

The Bishop suggests various useful and benevolent measures for the improvement of National Schools. We copy with pleasure the following passages.

"Suffer me then to remind you, that the thing next in importance to a deep sense of religion, is the habit of industry, and a knowledge of some means of practicable useful employment. The one should, if possible, be taught with, and accompany the other. Without religion, man is little better than the beast that perisheth; with out the ability of pursuing some trade, or occupation, he may be turned out into the world, a bane and a burthen to all around him."

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Every officiating minister is required by the canons of our church to catechize and examine the children of his parish: he is remunerated also by the legislature, for watching over and improving the morals of the people; and, what is beyond all earthly considerations, he is commanded by the great Shepherd of souls to feed his flock. Surely then it is the duty of the clergy to superintend and direct their own parochial schools. Thus, from their local knowledge, each imperfection, as it arose, might be removed, and national education would be rendered productive of unmixed national good.

"A Saturday afternoon, devoted to a viva voce inquiry into the progress made by the children in religious knowledge, would be a truly Christian employment of that time. It might duly prepare the scholars for the approaching Sabbath. It would enable the minister to ascertain, whether the children really comprehended what they were taught; or whether they merely learnt and answered by rote, without being made, either wiser, or better. Thus might the Christian minister lead the youth of his parish from the school-room to the church, and enable them, under the Divine blessing, to pass through the grave to those mansions which are not made with hands, eternal in the heavens."

"We must allow, and we do so with regret, that crimes, and particularly juvenile delinquencies, have increased, of late, to a very alarming degree." 66 The cause may justly, as we think, be accounted for, by the large increase of our population; and, partly, by those difficulties and bereavements to which our manufacturers have been of late exposed. But be the amount of crime, and the causes of it, what they may, still the fact undeniably holds out to us a most impressive admonition and warning. It calls upon us, by every motive which ought to influence the heart of man, to afford education to the young-to ground that education on a knowledge of the word of God-and to give a proper impulse to that important

engine, the direction of which is yet in our hands.

"We allow, that the most secure, and the most effective method of affording instruction to youth, is by domestic education. No other mode can fully supply the loss of paternal authority, and maternal affection. But the poor are, of necessity, engaged in manual occupations; and must by daily labour earn their daily bread. Surely then it is a Christian duty, incumbent upon all, to do that for the children do of themselves; to take care that their of the poor which the poor are unable to offspring learn, that there is a God, and will be an hereafter."

CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. The Committee have communicated to the friends of the Society the following statement, relative to its funds.

At the termination of the first half of the current year, the income of the Society had fallen short, by a very considerable sum, of the corresponding half of the preceding year. Though new Associations have been formed, the returns from them have not been of such an amount as to supply the deficiencies of the old Associations. The Society nearly expends from year to year its whole income; and as its exertions are enlarged, there will be an increasing expenditure in each mission. The funded property of the Society is at present considerably less than the amount of halfa-year's expenditure. If the deficiency in the income of the Society is not retrieved, some of those plans which God has hitherto blessed must be abandoned; and it would become necessary to reduce within much narrower limits, if not altogether to withdraw, some of those missions, the extension of which the state of the world loudly and powerfully claims from British Christians.

Though various concurrent causes have probably contributed to this deficiency, the Committee state their conviction, that one principal cause has been their incompetency to meet the wishes of the Associations that more persons might visit them at their anniversaries, and for a longer period of time. Instead of the arrangement by which it was provided that four visitors of Associations should be appointed in the place of a third secretary, it is intended to appoint two official visitors of Associations, who shall be devoted to the service of the Society. The Committee cherish the hope that other clergymen will not fail gratuitously to render them that aid in visiting Associations which will still be absolutely requisite, and which has been one principal

means of raising the missionary spirit throughout the country, and of gathering together the funds of former years.

Never had the society more ample fields of labour open before them, and more general encouragement to proceed. And never have its claims been publicly made known, without producing an in. crease to its resources. The Committee therefore address their appeal to the whole body of the Society's supporters, with the utmost confidence that the case needs only to be known, in order to produce active and zealous exertions. There are yet many large towns and parishes in which little or nothing has been done in support of the Society; and if its various friends would undertake to ascertain what openings there are in their respective neighbourhoods, and in what places it is probable that Associations might be formed, and at the same time endeavour to revive those which are languishing, there can be little doubt, from past experience, but that such efforts would tend to a large increase in the resources of the Society.

the many education establishments of Ireland, for which the Irish peasantry have reason ever to be grateful; by it the sacred Scriptures, in our native language, have been supplied-in the most destitute parts of the country, Irish schools planted; and, in those schools, not merely the young, but the middle-aged and the old, have been taught to read, in their own language, of the wonderful works of God. "We do not consider the Irish a proselyting society-nothing connected either with its nature, laws, or operations warrants the charge of proselytism-during the period of our connection with that society, no Protestant connected with the institution has ever interfered with our church or religious opinions—from our teachers being Roman Catholics and our inspectors Roman Catholics, the society cannot reasonably be termed a proselyting, society; unless it be admitted that scriptural knowledge conduces to proselytism; a conclusion which, we presume, our pastors will not readily admit; for if the Scriptures be the word of God, and the Roman-Catholic Church be founded on that word, the reading of the Scriptures must rather tend to attach us to than draw us from that church.

"Ever since our connexion with the Irish Society, we have been most anxiously endeavouring to obtain scriptural knowledge; also to ascertain whether or not by the reading of the Scriptures we violate the ancient laws or councils of the churchwe have, connected with the district, Irish teachers of intelligence and understanding, men classically educated, who have recourse to church history, are intimately acquainted with the history of the church, and can read the writings of the fathers in their original language-the result of their

IRISH SOCIETY OF DUBLIN. We hail with joy every succeeding indication of the diminishing sway of the corrupt Church of Rome over its votaries. The number of persons in Ireland who have renounced the errors of Popery is very large; but we augur less from individual instances of conversion, though now so numerous, than from the circumstance that scriptural education is widely on the increase; that the Scriptures themselves are extensively in circulation; ard that the people at large, as these conversions powerfully indicate, are beginning to assert their right to read and think for themselves. Our readers will not have forgotten the memorable re-investigation and inquiry has been, that, solutions of 490 Roman-Catholic teachers and scholars connected with the Irish Society, asserting the right and benefit of reading the Scriptures. Another general meeting of the Irish masters, connected with the same Society, has recently been held, at which 125 masters were present, when the following resolutions were passed:

"It is now nearly five years since the Irish Society established its first schools in the Kingscourt district: during that period some of us have been connected with the institution; many of us have jealously and minutely observed its operations; and, from our practical knowledge of its beneficent effects, are now unanimously of opinion that it is one among

instead of the reading of the Scriptures being forbidden, it is most strenuously enjoined by fathers, popes, and councils of the Roman-Catholic Church.

"For the benefit of those who are ignorant, and may not have access to books, the following authorities, out of many, for the right of the laity to read the Scriptures, are printed and circulated:

"First century-St. Clemens, called Romanus, says, Look diligently into the Scriptures, the true oracles of the Holy Spirit.' (Ad Corinth. i. 5.)

“Third century—Origen: * In the two Testaments every word that appertaineth unto God may be found out and discussed; and all knowledge of things out of them may be understood: but if any thing do

remain, which the holy Scriptures do not determine,no other kind of Scripture ought to be received.' (In Levit. Hom. V.) "Fourth century-' Believe all things that are written: the things that are not written, neither think upon nor inquire after.' (Answer by Euseb. Pamphyli, in the name of 318 fathers at the first Council of Nice; A. D. 325.)

"Sixth century-Pope St. Gregory the Great What is the sacred Scripture but an epistle of the omnipotent God to his creatures? The Governor of heaven, the Lord of men and angels, hath sent you letters affecting your life; and yet you neglect to read anxiously those epistles! I beseech you, therefore, study and meditate daily on the words of your Creator.' (Epist. Lib. iv. Indict. 12. Ep. 31. Ed. Par. 1705.)

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"Eleventh century-Theophylact: Say not the Bible is for clergymen only; it is designed for every Christian.'

"We most heartily accord with and unanimously adopt the sentiments, contained in a resolution passed at a meeting of our fellow-Catholics in the chapel of St. Nicholas, in Galway, on the 19th day of August last That freedom of conscience is the natural and inherent right of all mankind; and is, in its nature, incapable of being surrendered without a crime; or taken away by force, without oppression.' On the above self-evident principles, we do consider, that, as our inherent right, we should enjoy freedom of conscience in religious matters; and that any attempt, either to wrest the Scriptures from us, or to deprive us of religious rites for reading them, is not only criminal and oppressive, but equally a violation of our rights as human beings, and of our privilege as Roman Catholics. On the above authorities of fathers, councils, and popes, we are humbly of opinion, that our right, even as Roman Catholics, to read the Scriptures, is incontrovertibly established. When the Scriptures are in Greek, Latin, French, Italian, &c. there is no just cause why they should not also be in Irish-and since the Lord Jesus Christ has said search

the Scriptures,' no creature or assemblage of creatures has a right to say 'search

them not.'"

We shall give some account in another Number of the Society's proceedings, from their last Report and other documents.

NEWFOUNDLAND SCHOOL

SOCIETY.

The Society for providing free Daily and Sunday Instruction for the poor of New

foundland, have occupied, as our readers are aware, several important stations in the colony-namely, St. John's, with Quidi Vidi, Petty Harbour, Harbour Grace, Carbonnierre, Trinity, and Bonavista: at which stations twelve teachers are employed, who have given instruction to at least 2000 scholars. The conductors state that they have met with great encouragement; and that the people acknowledge the value of the services. of the Society, by cheerfully contributing what they can towards the support and erection of the schools. A desire for obtaining instruction has been strongly excited in the colony; and many thousands of persons are demanding this boon at the hands of the Society, who cannot impart it for want of sufficient funds. From St. John's to Bonavista, the whole line of coast is deeply indented with numerous bays, inhabited by isolated portions of the population of the island, which averages 100,000. In Conception Bay alone, the population is estimated at 19,000. The communication between the inhabitants of these separate districts is almost exclusively by water: so that the children are stationary; and unless instruction is carried to their doors, they must remain destitute of its blessings. Under these circumstances, twenty schools would afford but a scanty provision. To erect and support these, the Newfoundland School Society looks with confidence to the friends of Christian education in the mother country; and they press their claim the more urgently, as their funds are at present totally inadequate to the demands upon their Christian benevolence.

Subscriptions are received by Messrs. Whitmore, bankers, 24 Lombard-street; Messrs. Hatchard and Son, Piccadilly; and at the Society's Office, 13 Salisburysquare, Fleet-street.

COMMITTEE FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE GYPSIES.

A Committee has been formed at Southampton for the general improvement of the condition of the Gypsies. The Committee state, that a deep feeling of interest has been excited,in the minds of some benevolent persons in that town, in behalf of this long-neglected, ignorant, and immoral people; and various correspondents have at different times addressed us on the subject from other parts of the kingdom. The committee have issued the following queries, to which they request the replies of persons conversant with the subject:

1. What has been done, within your knowledge, for the moral, religious, and

general improvement of the Gypsies in this country, and with what success?

2. In the case of a failure in any plan for their benefit, can you account for the same?

3. What do you recommend, from your own experience, as the best means to adopt for the religious instruction and general improvement of the Gypsies, bearing in mind their wandering habits?

4. Could you refer the Committee to any persons who may have it in their power to afford them information on the subject in question?

The correspondents who have addressed us on the subject, do not appear to be aware that numerous papers have appeared in our volumes, directed to promote their benevolent object. See Christian Observer for 1808, pp. 91, 496, 712; for 1809, pp. 286, 767; for 1810, pp. 82, 554; for 1815. pp. 23, 141, 590; and 1821, p. 139.

INFANT SCHOOL SOCIETY. We extract from the Report read at the last annual meeting of this society, the following statements. It would be highly beneficial to the public if this society were more widely known, and more largely supplied with funds to prosecute its truly interesting and important plans of enlightened benevolence.

"We are far from denying," say the conductors," that much may be effected in the way of moral reformation, even with an adult population, which has been left to grow up in ignorance and viee. Surely, however, it can never be the true wisdom of the Christian philanthropist to wait the maturity of ignorance and vice before he begins his conflict with them, or to suffer these inveterate enemies of public peace and private happiness to take root, and to gather strength from time and habit, before he sets himself to counteract their influence. Ought he not rather to meet, and combat them in their first approaches; and to prevent their gaining possession of the mind, rather than trust to the uncertain possibility.of their future expulsion? Our chief hope of moral improvement, for our own country and the world at large, depends, under the Divine blessing, on the early Christian training of the rising generation. We shall be told, indeed, that this is a prevailing sentiment; and that its general prevalence is fully attested by the multitude of both Sunday and weekday schools which cover the land; and by the many hundreds of thousands of our youth who attend them. We admit the CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 311.

fact, and rejoice in it; but still, our dayschools and our Sunday-schools leave a most important period of the life of man wholly unprovided for. They seldom open their doors to children who have not attained the age of seven years; a period young, indeed, for fulfilling any of the useful purposes of life, but not too young to have imbibed much which may mar their capacities for future usefulness: even before that early period, habits of evil may be so far formed as greatly to counteract the influence of the soundest instruction, and the best conducted discipline.

"Contemplate, for example, the condition of the children of the poor in the courts and alleys of this vast metropolis; see them immersed in filth and wretchedness, tied down to a chair through their rickety infancy, or lulled to lethargy with deleterious drugs, or ardent spirits; see them dragged about by an elder sister, herself needing maternal care, whilst both their parents are toiling for the bread which is to feed them; and then turned loose, as soon as they can run about, to join in the streets their companions in squalidness and rags, from whom they learn to lisp oaths with their first accents, and by whom they are soon initiated in falsehood, imposture, and crime. Thus do these hapless infants rise to youth and manhood, surrounded by every incitement to evil, without check or counsel, without the lessons of Christian instruction, or the softening influence of Christian sympathy, until they ripen, in process of time, into the inaturity of wickedness; a burden to themselves, a disgrace to their families, and a pest to society.

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"Now, it is from this state of debasement, and from these wretched results of such a state, that infant schools are intended to rescue our population. their advantages it is not our present purpose to specify: this would be only to repeat what has been said on former occasions. But this much we may remark, in passing, that infant schools possess this advantage, that while they shield the tenderest years of the young from the conta mination of vicious example, and from the lessons of profaneness and pollution to be learnt in our streets, substitute the elements of useful, and, above all, of Scriptural knowledge; while they do this, they interfere with no domestic tie, and, violate no recognized principle of sound economic policy."

"Being deeply impressed with the advantages of the Infant-School-system, the 4 Y

committee congratulates the society on its wide increase and diffusion. Two hundred additional schools have, since the last meeting, been set on foot: nor have the benefits been confined to England. Ireland has also began to participate in them. Mr. Wilderspin has lately visited that country, where he met with a cordial and encouraging reception; and the committee are sanguine in the expectation, that before long Infant Schools may be widely diffused in Ireland, as well as in England. The society have taken under their immediate charge, and adopted as their own, the Infant School in Vincent Square, Westminster, to serve the purpose of a model school. They have also appointed Mr. Wilderspin, who formerly conducted Mr. Wilson's school in Quaker Street, Spitalfields, their travelling agent. The object of Mr. Wilderspin's visits is to assist in forming, on the most approved plan, the Infant Schools, which may be projected in any part of the country. The founders of such schools may obtain his attendance for that purpose on applying for it, and without any charge beyond that of defraying his travelling expenses. The committee are happy to add, that his exertions have hitherto been attended with uniform success. When the society met two years since, there was a balance in its favour of 9931. Since then, there has been received 2437. The expenditure of the society during the two years has been 10471. The committee therefore forcibly appeal to the friends of Infant Education, to assist them in their future exertions; and they fully believe that this appeal, after the deep interest excited in favour of this institution, will not be made in vain."

ABERDEEN AUXILIARY BIBLE SOCIETY.

At a late meeting of this society, it was moved, "That this society highly approve of the candour, patience, and whole conduct of their committee, in reference to the British and Foreign Bible Society; and as that society has now abandoned the circulation of the Apocrypha, they see no reason for a further suspension of remittances. "The votes were thirty-seven for the motion to adhere to the British and Foreign Bible Society; four for the motion to separate. Eight members did not

vote.

BASLE MISSIONARY INSTITU TION.

The deputation of the Church Missionary Society appointed to visit the Missionary Institution at Bâsle, report, that, with reference to the laws which re

gulate the admission of students into the Bâsle Institution, great caution appears to be employed. The probationer's first year is called the elementary year. After he has resided in the Institution during that period, he undergoes another examination, in order to decide whether he shall be admitted to a second year's probation. After having finished the second year he is admitted as a scholar: from this period, a course of three years commences, which are called the theological years. There are four teachers connected with the Institution, who are ministers of the Lutheran Church. With respect to discipline, the system is rather one of principles than of regulations. The great principle is, "that the heart must be constrained by the love of Christ, freely and cheerfully to devote all to Him." Each student is allowed the largest practicable sphere of Christian liberty: he is informed, "Your state here is a state of trial; the gift which Christ has given you is Christian liberty, and of this you are expected to make a right use; and we shall judge, by your use of it, how far the law of Christ has power over your heart and life."

In reference to what is called Neology, the deputation were informed, that the description given in Mr. Rose's discourses on the "State of the Protestant Religion in Germany," is rather true of the condition of things some years ago, than at present. It was alleged, that, since the year 1815, there has been a considerable return to right sentiments, not only among the people, but also in the universities and among the clergy. Before that period, there was scarcely a university untainted by Neology. Some universities, indeed, and many clergymen, remained faithful; but Neology was the prevailing system. Now things are much improved, and a more scriptural system begins to prevail. Formerly there was little or no opposition to the prevailing false and heretical opinions: now there is an earnest and extended opposition to them. The pious ministers are yet the smaller party; but they are, through the blessing of God, growing in numbers and decision of character.

With regard to the Bâsle Institution, the deputation were assured that the committee have uniformly held the Neological system in abhorrence: they consider the inspired Scriptures to be the only foundation of Christian doctrine; all the instructions delivered in the Institution are founded on their Divine authority, and derived from their contents: every other foundation but Jesus Christ and Him crucified, as revealed in the Scriptures, they entirely disclaim.

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