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The individual, who would undertake this journey, must engage to do it on foot and barefoot, to enter no inn, tavern, or hotel, and to receive on his way his lodging and food of but pious persons alone. He will be forbidden to embark in France, and must proceed by Lyons and Chamberry; cross the Alps; go to Rome, where he will perform some religious practices; continue by La Romagna and the March of Ancona; and embark at some port of Calabria for Joppa or St. John d'Acre, from whence he will go to Jerusalem. His return must also be effected in the same manner. Apply, by sealed letters, to X., at the Memorial office, Douay." · The established church of France is composed of four cardinals, three archbishops, sixty-six bishops, 600 canons or prebendaries, 2917 cures or rectors, 22,316 deservans or curates. The expense of the establishment, including annuities to the infirm clergy, is estimated at 25,650,000 francs, or 2,137,498. Of the Protestant clergy, there are Calvinist ministers 295, Lutheran ministers 220. The sum-total paid for the support of Protestant clergy is 58,083. This sum is paid by the French government: but there are many Protestant clergymen in France who do not receive any stipend from the government, it being a regulation not to make any grant where the Protestant population does not amount to a thousand. The proportion of the expense of the Protestant, to the expense of the Catholic church, is about one to fourteen. SPAIN.

In some new documents relative to Columbus, recently published by authority of the Spanish government, it is urged that the island which Columbus first discovered in America, and to which he gave the name of San Salvador, is not the Island now called St. Salvador, or Cat Island, but Turk's Island.


Of thirty thousand dollars, the amount of state tax to be raised in New Jersey this year, ten thousand are designed for the School fund.

An original letter of Dr. Franklin's has just been published, in which he requests from his correspondent a list of a few good books, to the value of about twenty-five pounds, such as are most proper to inculcate principles of sound religion and just government. "A new town," he says, "in the state of Massachusetts, having done me the honour of naming itself after me, and proposing to build a steeple to CHRIST. OBServ. No. 308.

their meeting-house, if I would give them a bell, I have advised the sparing themselves the expense of a steeple at present, and that they would accept of books instead of a bell, sense being preferable to sound. These are, therefore, intended as the commencement of a little parochial library, for the use of a society of intelligent respectable farmers, such as our country people generally consist of." He particularly mentions, " on the recommendation of his sister," "Stennet's Discourses on Personal Religion."

The Medical Association of New-Haven county, Connecticut, have published a statement, that more than one-third of the deaths which occur among persons over twenty years of age in New Haven are caused or hastened, directly or indirectly, by intemperance! yet it is added, as an undisputed fact, that less intemperance exists in New Haven than in almost any other city of equal population.—At a general meeting of the students of Yale College, resolutions have been unanimously adopted of their intention, during their stay in college, as well as ever afterwards, to use every honourable means for the suppression of the vice of intemperance.— The Presbytery of Genessee have passed resolutions approving of the plan of the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance, and have resolved to abstain entirely from the use of ardent spirits themselves, except in cases of bodily infirmity; and not to allow the use of them in their families, or to provide them for the entertainment of friends, or for persons in their employment. They recommend the formation of Anti-Intoxication Associations in the churches and societies under their care.

The first steam-boat ever brought into successful operation, was the Clermont, built by Fulton, which started from New York for Albany, Sept. 10, 1807, with twelve passengers. She performed the passage in thirty-two hours. There are now nearly 400 steam-boats on the waters of the United States.

"We have lotteries," says the American Christian Spectator, "for schools and for bridges, for colleges and monuments, lotteries for churches, and lotteries for bishops. Religion, which has so clean escaped from the pollutions of the old world as to abhor the connexion of church and state, has found in this freer hemisphere a new ally. If things go on happily, we may live to behold our waste villages with a church at one end for the support of religion, and a 3 S

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lottery-office at the other for the support among some wasted fragments of human of the minister." bones. On the interior surface, the following inscription is legible :-" This and the giver are yours for ever, 1722.". It is conjectured to have belonged to some officer in the British or American army; and the present owner would gladly restore it, as a family relic, if a just claimant can be found.

An association has been formed in Con necticut, for the improvement of the pub lic schools throughout the Union; and measures are to be taken to effect such changes in the present system as may appear necessary.

Mr. Sparks, the editor of the North American Review, has made arrangements with Judge Washington for publishing General Washington's state papers, official correspondence, and such of his private letters as may be deemed suited for publication, with notes and illustrations. Washington had all his important papers arranged with the greatest order in fifty folio volumes-some of them copied by his own hand, and others by secre taries.

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A gold ring was lately found by a farmer, while ploughing a part of the ground where the battle of Cowpens, in South Caro lina, was fought in 1781. It was lying

Messrs. Harpers, of New York, have just published the first complete edition of the Works of the Rev. John Wesley ever printed in the United States. It is printed in ten volumes, at about half the price of the London editions. INDIA.

With a view to prevent unnecessary oaths, the Court of Directors have ordered, that, in administering the business of the military fund for the widows of officers, solemn declarations on honour shall be substituted for affidavits, in all ordinary cases, where there is no suspicion of unfairness.



Hymns written and adapted to the Weekly Church Service of the Year. By the Right Rev. Reginald Heber, D. D., late Lord Bishop of Calcutta. 8vo. 7s. 6d. The Connection of Sacred and Profane History from the Death of Joshua until the Decline of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. By the Rev. M. Russell, LL.D. 2 vols. 8vo. 11. 8s.

The Case between the Church and the Dissenters impartially and practically considered. By the Rev. F. Merewether, M.A. 8vo. 6s.

A Vindication of the Character of Bishop Bull, against the Archdeacon of Ely. By the Ven. Charles Daubeny, D.D.,

Archdeacon of Sarum. 8vo. 63.

A Summary View of Christian Principles. By T. Finch. 5s. 6d.

The Nature and Ministry of the Holy Angels. 2s. 6d.

A Sermon preached before the London Missionary Society. By the Rev, R. W. Sibthorp. 1s. 6d.

The Gentiles gathered to the Fold of Christ: a Sermon. By the Rev. T. Raffles, LL.D. 1s. 6d.

Original Sermons. By the late Rev. H. King. 8vo. 10s.

The Reasons of the Laws of Moses, from the "More Nevochim" of Maimonides. With Notes, Dissertations, and a Life of the Author; by the Rev. J. Townley, D.D. 8vo. 10s. 6d. Exposition of the CXIXth Psalm. the Rev. C. Bridges. 6s.


Nature and Grace. By Mrs. Stevens, 6s.

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A Review of the Doctrine of Personal Identity; in which are considered and compared the Opinions of Locke, Butler, Reid, Brown, and Stuart, upon that subject. 8vo. 3s.

Lady of the Manor. By Mrs. Sherwood. Vol. V. 12mo. 7s.

A Journal from Buenos Ayres to Potosi. By Captain Andrews. 2 vols. Post 8vo.

Two Years in New South Wales. By P. Cunningham, R. N. 2 vols. Post 8vo. 18s

Tour through France, Italy, and Switzerland. By J. Johnson, R. N. 1 vol. 12mo. 6s.

Rambles in Madeira and Portugal. Post 8vo. 9s. 6d.

Historical View of the Revolutions of Portugal. 8vo. 12s. 6d.

An Apology for the Waldenses. By the Rev. T. Sims. 2s.

St. Helena Memoirs. By T. Robson. 3s.
The Guilty Tongue. 2s.

History of the War in the Peninsula under Napoleon. By General Foy. Vol. I. 14s.

The History and Antiquities of Weston Favell, in the County of Northampton. By J. Cole. 8vo. 5s. 6d.

Chronicles of London Bridge; with 56 engravings on wood. Crown 8vo. 28s. History of the Battle of Agincourt, from contemporary Authorities. By N. H. Nicolas, Barrister at Law, F.S.A.




IN our Number for June we gave an outline of the Rev. F. Cunningham's statements respecting the Bible Societies in France. The following is the substance of his communications respecting the Valleys of Piedmont, Switzerland, and Germany.

"In Italy I found the same obstacles to exist against the free circulation of the word of God, of which other travellers have complained. One exception however may be stated, and that with regard to a people whose cause has excited a warm and most honourable interest in this country-the Protestant inhabitants of Piedmont. They, in common with the other Protestant subjects of the King of Sardinia, are now permitted to receive books of every kind, on payment of duty, and on the condition that they are neither sold, lent, nor given to Catholics. This concession came at a time of peculiar importance, as it facilitated the introduction of the large grant of Bibles lately made by the British and Foreign Bible Society to the Protestant inhabitants of the Valleys. And I learned from the principal agent of the Bible Society in those quarters, that they had received 2397 Bibles and 2436 Testaments from different institutions. These grants are of greater value at this moment, when the Vaudois Committee in London is so wisely and assiduously labouring to establish schools of various kinds in these valleys.

"The next point to which I would call the attention of this Committee, is Geneva. The character and services of the Bible Society in that city have, it appears to me, been grievously misrepresented in some of the recent publications in this country on the Apocryphal controversy. From the fact of the society in Geneva not discovering much zeal for the distribution of the Geneva version of 1805, of which the orthodoxy was called in ques

tion, the consequence has arisen, that the friends of that version have gradually seceded from the ranks of the institution. And let it be recorded to the praise of the society at Geneva, that when the great mass of the continental Bible Societies were anxious, by establishing counter resolutions of their own, to manifest a spirit of resistance to the AntiApocryphal resolution of the London committee, the Geneva Society opposed this measure, and publicly manifested its fidelity towards the British and Foreign Bible Society. That the committee is not framed upon a more comprehensive and generous principle, is to be regretted; but it labours assiduously and successfully as to the great object for which it is brought together.

"The Bible Society of the Canton de Vaud has acted upon the principle of securing to itself a permanent income for the perpetual distribution of the Holy Scriptures, independent of new contributions, by funding its capital. This measure has displeased many individuals in the canton; and has probably assisted to give birth to other societies, in Lausanne and its neighbourhood, acting upon a different principle. I speak from pretty accurate knowledge of that canton, when I say, that the state of religion is very remarkably improved in it. I visited no place where the spirit of religious inquiry was more alive, and where the taste was more extended for simple Biblical reading. The severity of the government has in a great measure relaxed. The piety of the people has increased. Is it unfair to consider as one of the instruments of this improvement, that, in addition to the number of Bibles before in circulation, there has been circulated, by the Bible Society of that place, 15,000 copies of the word of God, amongst a population of 160,000 persons?

"As to the newly revised edition of Osterwald's Bible, published at Lausanne, it is impossible not to condemn in it both

the deviations from the original, and the employment, in what are called the improvements, of a great deal of paraphrastic language. In speaking of that edition of the Bible, I think it right, however, to bear my humble testimony to the general character of the authors of this revision."

"The next Bible Society of importance which I visited was that of Basle. I was there soon brought into communication with the committee on the subject of their temporary estrangement from your society on the ground of the late resolution as to the Apocryphal Books. When they found that the decision of the London committee was the result, not of prejudice, but of conscience, they at once gave up their own resolutions, and acquiesced in the proposal which was made to them. They passed a resolution expressive of their kind sympathy towards the British and Foreign Bible Society; and they undertook still to serve it as agents; although, at the same time, they could not, according to their judgment of the question, consent personally, and for themselves, to circulate Bibles without the Apocryphal Books. I cannot easily convey to you the high opinion which I formed of the committee of the Bible Society of Basle, and of its venerable president, the Antistes. The interest which they feel, and the labour which they devote to the distribution of the Scriptures, is what I have never seen exceeded in any other place; and I can have no doubt, that whatever commission you are pleased to entrust to them will be judiciously and faithfully executed.

"It is my wish, in the last place, to say something on the state of Germany. And here the few observations I have to offer will be of a somewhat more general nature, or, at least, less confined to particular societies.

"The German societies labour under great difficulty respecting the Apocryphal Books; and the greater part of them are not at present disposed to give them up. But their reasons are founded rather on views of expediency, than conscience; and are not therefore to be put in comparison with the great principle involved in this question, and which has directed the decision of the London committee, namely, whether that which is not the word of God ought to be put on a level with that which is. cannot but think, that if our Christian brethren in Germany were led to this


view of the question; that if the writers on the subject in this country were to dis rect a little of their zeal to their instruc tion upon this point; the more pious part of our neighbours would be induced, at no distant period, to adopt the resolution which we have established. In the mean time, there are very many persons and districts, as the correspondence of the society may testify, who, even now, are willing to receive and distribute the Bible without the Apocryphal writings. The example of these societies will, I doubt not, work powerfully upon others.

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"From all that I was able to learn in Germany, it appeared to me that to every class of Protestants the resolution of your committee respecting the Apocrypha will be attended with immense advantage. Great benefit may result from this resolution to the general theological teaching of that country. A large proportion of the errors of the German divines, appear to me to have originated in breaking down the boundaries of inspiration. Now the anti-apocryphal resolution of the committee will, I con ceive, go far to suggest for each man's consideration this important question— What is, and what is not the Bible?? and thus a primary and most important question will be discussed, one which must stand at the basis of all sound theo→ logy; and this, if rightly determined, will assist to bring back the German divines from the wild notions they have so generally adopted; and the benefit resulting from this resolution will probably be a larger distribution of the Bible itself. With respect to the Catholic population, any considerable distribution of the Old Testament will undoubtedly be prevented by the anti-apocryphal resolution. But this needs not hinder the circulation of the New Testament. This indeed may be distributed in larger abundance than before. Leander Van Ess, told me, that he had then before him applications for 30,000 copies of the Catholic New Testament, whilst he had only 200 or 300 in his depository; and that he waited only for the direction of your society to increase his circulation to a very great amount.

"It may be desirable to say a few words as to the committees and officers of the German Bible Societies. It has been a subject of grief to me, on my return to this country, to find these individuals reproached, in very general terms, as flue fidels,' Neologians,' "designing men, 'who having taken the offices they hold

for their crafts' sake,' &c. It is true, I apprehend, that many Neologians are con nected with the Bible Societies in Germany, some by virtue of the offices they hold, and others voluntarily. But from all the inquiries I was able to make, I could never learn that any individual in Germany, publicly holding Neological opinions, was an active agent of the Bible Society.

"In another part of the continent, I certainly found some persons, professedly heterodox in their opinions, who were nevertheless active friends of the Bible Society. But could I fail, in such cases, to thank God, who had kindly placed the antidote so near to the bane, and had employed an enemy of the truth as the destroyer of his own principles?

"Another point, to which I must refer, is that of the persecution of religious persons in Germany, and which persecutions have been represented as at least sanctioned by the friends of the Bible Society. This statement, as a general fact, I believe to be utterly incorrect."

"With respect to the Canton de Vaud, a statement to the same effect has been made. It is certain that an angry feeling was excited in the minds of several members of the committee of the Bible Society of that district, on the occasion which gave rise to the persecutions in that canton. At the same time, any participation in this persecution is, as to himself, distinctly disavowed by Professor Levade; and certainly those who were the writers or actors in this persecution do not appear in any way in the list of the officers of the Bible Society. Two circumstances, connected with the measures which were pursued in this canton in opposition to religious meetings, are sufficiently remarkable and interesting to deserve our notice. In the first place, the astonishing progress of religion during this period; and, in the second, the discovery, during the brief continuance of this opposition, of the utter inefficiency of intolerant measures in checking the progress of inquiry after truth.

"Another point, which I must bring before your notice, is the actual state of true religion on the continent, and more especially in Germany. It is certainly true that Neology has to a lamentable extent taken possession of the universities, the public prints, and the higher orders of society. At the same time, I believe that the statements which have gone abroad, of the extent of its prevalence, are, as to two points, inaccurate. In the first place, they describe only one side of the case;

for, if there is much infidelity and neod logy on the continent, there is also considerable sprinkling of true religion.u And, secondly, the evil which has ex isted, and does exist, may be said to be every day diminishing. As to the first of these facts, I could point out individuals, parishes, and districts where real religion is in active operation; places and persons altogether unconnected with those agents from England, who have been said to be the only instruments of doing important good on the continent, and which are therefore unrecognised by them, and possibly unknown to them. I could name one little knot of parishes, all within a small circle, in which are twelve ministers, earnest, orthodox, and devout servants of the Redeemer. I could name another place, where forty ministers were lately assembled for purposes of religious and spiritual communion. I might also allege the fact, that at different universities there are professors who openly, and from the heart, confess the true faith. I may indeed affirm, that, from the cottages of the poor to the palaces of kings, there are those who walk worthy their high vocation as Christians and as men. The admitted evils are every day diminishing. The number of converts is increasing. The opinions of Paulus and Schulthess seem likely to die away with themselves. What can be more remarkable than the change which has taken place in the kingdom of Prussia, where the leaders of the state and the university may now be said to hold the very opposite creed to that which obtained with their immediate predecessors ?

"There are two individuals, of whom, as connected with Germany, I feel it right to say a few words-the one is Leander Van Ess; the other your late invaluable Secretary, Dr. Steinkopff.

"Leander Van Ess I had the happiness of visiting; and I remained with him during a day, which I passed at Darmstadt. I was struck with his holy devotedness to his great object, with his unwearied diligence, with his unbounded charity. He is making a new version of the Bible, which, by the help of the continental Bible Societies, he is about to print; and, although he holds the opinions of the church to which he belongs on the subject of the Apocrypha, he wishes this opinion to be no hindrance to others; so that they will, in any way, read the word of God."

"The other individual, to whom I have ventured to refer, is your late dear and

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