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and providing (gratuitously) materials for the erection of schools. The income of the society is, however, quite inadequate to meet its current expenses.

The society has already sent out six masters, six mistresses, and a monitor, who are at this time, by means of daily and Sunday schools, dispensing at seven different stations the blessings of education among at least 1000 scholars, children and adults. These establishments have been lately visited by the assistant secretary of the society, whose report, as to the conduct of the teachers and the prosperity of the schools, is most encouraging. In visiting these stations he has discovered that many intermediate settlements are destitute of daily schools, as well as of places of worship; and from some of these, and other parts of the colony, he is the bearer of seven petitions to the society, for the establishment of schools.

For a population so large and so widely scattered as that of Newfoundland, twenty schools would afford but an indifferent provision to erect these, not less than six thousand pounds will be required, in addition to native contributions; and for their permanent support, together with incidental expenses, a demand must be calculated upon, of from four to five thousand pounds annually. Much as may be expected from the government and colonists; yet, after all, to meet this great expense, the mother country must for the present be chiefly depended on. The society therefore justly appeal to the benevolence of the public, which we trust they will experience to the full amount of the necessities of the case. Communications are to be addressed to the assistant secretary, Mr. M. Willoughby, at the Society's office, No. 13, Salisburysquare, London.

SUFFERINGS OF THE GERMAN

COLONISTS IN GEORGIA. The following is extracted from a letter written by the Rev. A. Dittrich, to the Rev. Dr. Steinkopff, dated St. Petersburg, Dec. 12, 1826.

"We cannot but gratefully proclaim the wonderful deliverance of the Lord, which our missionaries experienced during the late perfidious invasion of the Persians, when their army, of about forty or fifty thousand men, under the command of Abba Mirza, laid siege to the fortress of Schuscha. At a moment,' writes one of our missionaries, when the danger of our situation appeared the most appalling,

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when our enemies, in the pride and arrogance of their hearts, tauntingly insulted the Russian troops who mounted guard on the walls, by exclaiming, "If your Jesus be indeed God, let him come down and help you; nay, during the very night when a general assault was expected to be made, the besiegers suddenly marched off, for the purpose of hastening to the relief of another division of the Persian army, which had been defeated. Their attempt was, however, ineffectual; for the Lord again crowned the Russian arms with victory. Thus those that walk in pride, He is able to abase.'

"What induces me to write to you on this occasion is, the indescribable misery into which three of the German colonies in Georgia have been plunged by the licentious cruelties of their barbarous invaders. Seven of these colonies were established in 1817 and 1818. It is true that, at first, the colonists entertained somewhat singular notions on certain points of doctrine; but most of them had latterly returned to the simplicity of the Gospel, and were becoming a light shining in the midst of darkness, both by their industry and their exemplary walk and conversation. Three of their settlements have however, now, been nearly reduced to a heap of ruins. Of 250 families, many are groaning in the severest slavery; and the rest, who have escaped this dreadful fate, wander about without the means of subsistence, and destitute of clothing and shelter. Let me here mention a few particulars.

"The first settlement, called Helenendorf, is situated near the Persian frontiers, in the circle of Elisabethpol; and was in a flourishing state, both with regard to the temporal and spiritual concerns of the inhabitants. Previous to the attack of the Persians, the Tartars of this circle had rebelled, and the colonists quickly saw that they had every reason to dread being cruelly treated by them. Their only refuge was in God, before whom they prostrated themselves in prayer for eight successive days, imploring Him to grant them perfect resignation to his will. At length, on the 28th of July, they all assembled together in the church for solemn prayer, and, after having assured each other of their mutual forgiveness and good-will, celebrated the holy sacrament, in order that, being thus prepared, they might glorify God even in death. The service was, however, interrupted by the sudden irruption of several hordes of ferocious Tartars into the village, who furiously

drove their cattle away, destroyed the windows, chairs, benches, and doors of their houses, as well as their waggons, and all their implements of husbandry; and, in short, seized upon every thing they could find; with the additional threat, that they would soon also lay hold of their persons. The poor people immediately collected together, and with no other clothing than the thin summer dress which they had on, fled to the town of Elisabethpol, where they were received in a friendly manner by the Armenians. During a period of six or seven weeks they lived there, in daily apprehension of losing their lives; enduring, at the same time, all the miseries of hunger and nakedness, until the victorious arms of the Russians prevented their being led away into slavery. They are at present in the most deplorable state of want and wretchedness.

"The second settlement, called Armenfeld, was at no great distance from the first. The inhabitants providentially succeeded in saving their lives, their cattle, and, their waggons, by flying to Tiflis; but their crops, their houses, and all their other property, fell into the hands of their plunderers. Their present situation is

likewise very pitiable.

"The third settlement, Catharinenfeldt, which was situated nearer to the frontiers of Turkey, was doomed to suffer by far the greatest calamities. On the 14th of August, at daybreak, a wild horde, consisting of Tartars and blood-thirsty Curds, to the number of 1000, suddenly attacked the place, and, after surrounding it, burst open the gates, and shot or hewed down with their sabres every one that dared to oppose them. Whoever was able, betook himself to instant flight; and, with the horrors of death before them, fathers, mothers, and children, were seen endeavouring to escape, and frequently in opposite directions. A party of the barbarians however pursued them, firing at them, and endeavouring to destroy them with their sabres and lances; so that it was almost a miracle that any were saved. The almighty hand of the Lord, however, pre served the lives of 240 persons; but upwards of thirty were put to death, and about 140 were carried away into slavery. "No human tongue can describe the misery which, in the course of a few hours, overwhelmed the settlement.. Some of the colonists, in attempting to escape, were caught with long cords, in the same manner as wild cattle are taken. In one quarter a father, with his little child at his side; in another, a mother,

with her infant at the breast; and again, in another, old people, girls, and children, were seen promiscuously driven together like sheep. Whoever was thus taken was immediately stripped of his clothing, and either killed on the spot, or suffered to run naked away. A female was dread fully maltreated before her own door. Little children were bound together in couples, and then slung across the horses' backs, like articles of baggage. If any disturbed their persecutors by their cries, they were dispatched before the face of their parents. Every sense of shame, and every feeling of humanity, was extinguished in these barbarians: the brutal horde set no limits to their licentious passions. A young woman of acknowledged piety, in endeavouring to escape from the robbers, was fired at and shot in the spine, so that she instantly fell, but only slowly expired in the most excruciating agonies, on the ground. A man, whilst endeavouring to intercede for the lives of his wife and children, was murdered at the foot of a tree, to which his wife had fled for shelter. The latter, with an infant at the breast, was spared; but, with a bleeding heart, she saw her two little ones carried away into slavery.' Three girls, about fifteen years of age, thought themselves happy in having reached the river (at the distance of seven or eight wersts), when two Tartars overtook them, and cruelly wreaked their vengeance on two of them. Among the wounded, who were afterwards taken up and cared for, there was one who had had his skull laid open, and was wounded in the back with no less than twenty-two thrusts of a lance. A Curd ordered another of the colonists to throw himself on the ground, in which situation he pierced him twice with a lance, in the same manner as fishes are caught by: spearing in the water; another Curd hurled a large stone at him, so that he was eventually left half dead.

"The most deplorable situation was that of the poor captives, who were treated like brutes, and inhumanly butchered if they did not immediately obey the cruel orders of their plunderers. A part of them have been carried away, and sold in Turkey; and the remainder are in slavery in Persia.

"Our philanthropic emperor has already, as I am informed, caused powerful measures to be taken for the release of such as are in Turkey, and will, doubtless, in due time, endeavour to rescue the others also from slavery; but for the means of

present relief, in the abject state in which the colonists are, we must look to the charity and generosity of our Christian friends and brethren, which the poor sufferers implore with outstretched hands." Subscriptions towards this object of Christian mercy will be received by Dr. Steinkopff. Alas! for our fallen and suffering humanity, that such scenes should desolate the fair face of the creation of a God of infinite mercy! Infinite reason have we to be grateful to Him that, in our own portion of the globe, they are unknown, so far, at least, as slavery is concerned-slavery which ever deeply aggravates, and often originates, the worst horrors of war. But let us turn to our own blood-stained colonies, and ask, Cannot an African feel as well as an European? Are not the ties of home, and kindred, and country, as dear to him as to us? Has he left behind him no father or mother, no sister, no friend, no child, hopelessly to lament over, in the bitter bondage which tears him for ever from their caresses? And, we may add, is there the least shadow of difference in the tenure by which our own countrymen, in England or the colonies, retain, to this hour, in galling slavery, the miserable African, and that by which the barbarous hordes of Curds and Tartars justify their right to tyrannize over their White victims, till they shall chance to be emancipated, not by any feelings of justice or humanity on the part of the master, but by the hand of power, or by a sordid appeal to his cupidity in the shape of a costly ransom?

MISSIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA. We copy a few brief notices from the memoranda of some of the missionaries in South Africa, as illustrative of the beneficent influence of Christian missions among the natives. They may be considered as average specimens; the journals of the missionaries abounding in similar details.

Mr. Shrewsbury, who is known to our readers from the circumstances of his honourable expulsion from Barbadoes, writes from Cape Town, where he was remaining for a time, in his way as a missionary [to Caffreland ;-"Brother Shaw came to take the superintendency of Cape-Town Circuit: several of the Namacquas came down with him. It was very delightful to hear them singing the praises of God in family worship. The Gospel has evidently been a great blessing to that people. Before philosophers have time to decide the dis

puted question, whether or not a degraded and heathen people can be benefited by missionary exertions, facts present themselves, and render debate unnecessary. The missionary exhibits the moral miracles wrought through his instrumentality, by the accompanying power of God. He shews his 'living epistles, known and read of all men.'

"The brethren Hodgson and Archbell begin to have some prospect of success amongst the poor Boschuanas, and the exceedingly populous tribes in the interior northwards. They have forwarded to us a copy of the first impression of a small elementary work in the Macquasse language, by means of which the knowledge of letters will be introduced amongst the barbarous and uncivilized natives. This little book of fifteen pages may be regarded as the harbinger of good for all future generations; good that shall remain to eternity. The Government Gazette contains an ordinance for facilitating commerce with the Caffres and other nations lying beyond the boundaries of the colony. Some of these regulations have a moral tendency, and cannot be read without pleasure by any who feel interested in the success of missionary exertions. It is ordained that no one shall pass the limits of the colony for the purpose of trading, without a licence; and that a licence shall be granted to persons of good character only; that no one shall be authorized to carry beyond the boundaries, arms, or ammunition, beyond what may be necessary for personal defence;-that any person convicted of maltreating or defrauding a Caffre or any other foreigner, shall be subject to a penalty or imprisonment; that any mer chandize that may be legally sold within the colony, may be offered for sale or barter to the tribes beyond it, except firearms, offensive weapons, ammunition, spirituous liquors, wine, beer, or ale, such things being declared to be contraband."

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Mr. Shaw writes-"On my arrival at the Cape, I found a supply of useful articles from our friends at Sheffield, which are exactly suited to our interior stations. The donors have not only sent our pious natives the word of eternal life, but the means of cultivating their fields, of reaping their harvests, of erecting granaries, of building themselves substantial dwellings. These invaluable articles will, ere long, be in the hands of Namacquas, Bushmen, Boschuanas and Caffres, where they will be brought into immediate use."

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

FOREIGN.

PORTUGAL.-The accounts from Portugal are favourable to the cause of the Constitution, and we are told that the armed insurgents are expelled from the country. Still there are circumstances which ill accord with this external appearance of tranquillity; among which we may mention the publication of an ordinance from the infanta regent to the primate of Spain, in which it is stated, that many of the clergy, both secular and regular, are in the habit of declaiming in the pulpit, and at the confessional, against the Constitution, teaching that it is hostile to the Roman-Catholic religion, and fomenting the civil war of which their exhortations are said to be the originating cause. The primate is charged to suspend from their functions all ecclesiastics who have thus offended, and to enjoin his clergy to preach expository and laudatory sermons on the articles of the Constitution. A far better plan would be to give the people the means of judging for themselves, by affording them the light of a liberal and scriptural education. A convention has been entered into with Great Britain, by which the Portuguese Government are to defray the expense of maintaining the troops sent out to their assistance.

SPAIN. Reports have arrived of the pravalence of serious discontents in the Spanish army. Nothing authentic has transpired upon the subject; but it seems very improbable that the affairs of that unhappy country can long continue upon their present footing. The soldiers upon the borders of Portugal are stated to be widely adopting the principles of civil liberty, which their aid is required to suppress.

UNITED STATES.-If we were not aware how deeply the existence of slavery

has contaminated every nation which has permitted it to blast its soil, we might think it a strange anomaly to find it reserved for the legislature of the United States, in the fifty-second year of Independence, to inquire" whether there exists any law authorising the imprisonment of a Man of Colour, being a citizen of the United States, and his sale as an unclaimed slave for gaol fees and other charges; and if so, as to the expediency of repealing the same." It is still more anomalous that, in a free and enlightened country, a lengthened debate should have ensued on such a question; or that

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the motion should have been carried only by a majority, though happily a large one, instead of promptly and unanimously. In the course of the discussion, a return was produced of fifty-eight Negroes committed to Washington gaol last year, as (alleged) runaways," and one hundred and twenty-four by their masters for "safe keeping!" The corresponding numbers the year before were fifty-two and eighty-one. Fifteen of the number in the end proved to be free: notwithstanding which, one of them was sold as a slave to pay the fees and other expenses of his imprisonment; as doubtless would all the others have been if they had not either possessed money or found compassionate persons to pay for them. And let it be remembered that this scene of wretchedness and oppression is the record of only one single prison, and during the short period of only two years. Let our readers multiply the details for themselves; let them also take account of the severities and punishments couched under the mild phrase of "safe keeping;" let them further consider how many of the number who, from ignorance, or poverty, or accident, could not legally and promptly, in the face of powerful prejudice and interest,

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prove" their freedom, were in all probability free-and then, if they can, let them retire to their repose without having used some one-additional effort towards extinguishing the monstrous and inhuman system of slavery wherever it may be found. We are aware that our American friends may retort our arguments. We admit the charge for " runaways and "safe keeping," stocks and scourges; and, it is too true, the occasional sales of freemen are not unknown in our own colonies. But wherever found they are enormities which not only call aloud for reprobation and suppression, but for the utter extinction of the terrific system in which they originate.

In addition to the proceedings in the national legislature, the discussions in the several state legislatures often furnish interesting information relative to the condition of this rapidly advancing country. The New-York House of Representatives, for example, is at present turning its attention, on a liberal scale, to the promotion of education, and the interests of literature and science. The subject of pauperism is also under its consideration. "Our code in relation to pauperism," says

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the Governor, in his Message, "is nearly a transcript of the English system, and a worse model could not be found. Experience has shewn that pauperism has increased in the ratio of its supplies and accommodations. We are glad to find that such just opinions prevail in the new world respecting a system which so many persons among ourselves not only applaud, but would even extend to Ireland, where its baneful effects would be still more pernicious than in England or New York.-We heartily wish that the New-York Legislature would imitate our own in abolishing lotteries, so far as its own State is concerned, and in prohibiting the sale of tickets, either national or belonging to other States. Our readers may judge of the extent of the evil when they consider that New York has been computed to contain more than one hundred and sixty lottery offices, and is in fact the great depôt for the whole Union. By another strange anomaly in legislation, the proceeds of the licences of these pestilential establishments are appropriated to the public-school fund, and the deafand-dumb asylum. We earnestly recommend the friends of religion and good morals in America, to turn their attention to this subject, and we doubt not that in the end, whatever opposition they may meet with from those who are interested in the present system, they will find their reward in abolishing this great public evil.

DOMESTIC.

Government have at length brought forward their plan respecting the trade in corn; which, though it has met with strenuous opposition from the advocates for a corn monopoly, is less favourable to a liberal system of trade in this article than we think sound policy and justice demand, especially when we consider the deeply afflicting condition of our manufacturing population, to whom cheap bread is the most important of all articles of consumption. The proposed plan is, that grain should be allowed to be imported at all times for home consumption but under the protection of certain duties. Thus, when wheat is at the price of 60 to 61s. per quarter, the duty shall be 20s. from 61 to 62s. 18s.; from 62 to 63s. 16s., and so on up to 70s. when the duty would cease and importation be free, excepting a trifling payment of 1s. The same ratio of 2s. duty for every shilling in price is to take place in the descending scale, so that when the price falls only to 553., there will be a duty of 30s. which

would be in fact prohibitory. Barley, oats, and other species of grain are to be regulated by corresponding duties calculated according to their relative value. Much discussion has ensued, and some amendments have been proposed; but the general measure has been sanctioned by considerable majorities in the House of Commons. Warm opposition, however, seems to await it in the House of Lords; but we trust not so as to defeat the leading provisions of the plan, which, though far from what is to be wished on this great branch of policy, is at least an improvement of the existing system, and proceeds on a much sounder principle.

The question of Catholic Emancipation has been again brought forward in the House of Commons, on a motion by Sir Francis Burdett, for" taking into consideration the present laws inflicting penalties and disabilities upon our RomanCatholic fellow-subjects with a view of removing them." The debate lasted two nights; in the course of which most of the leading speakers, and various other members particularly interested in this subject, addressed the house. We cannot undertake to give even an outline of these protracted discussions; which resulted in a rejection of the motion by a majority of four: no fewer than 548 members voting; 272 for, and 276 against the motion. The subject is, however, far from being set at rest; and frequent conversations are occurring respecting it in both houses, especially the House of Lords. We much fear lest it should prove a source of greater discords than ever; for never, in the opinion of persons of all parties, has the state of Ireland been less a subject of more serious uneasiness than at present.

Mr. Peel is adding to his claims upon the gratitude of the country, by the introduction of several highly valuable bills for consolidating, and in part amending, successive portions of the criminal jurisprudence of the country. These bills will remove one hundred and thirty statutes, and condense the law respecting theft into twenty-nine pages. The language also will be rendered more intelligible by the omission of useless and tautologous phraseology. The bills will also, in some respects, diminish capital punishments; an object which Mr. Peel states his wish gradually to extend further, as the intelligence of the country may allow.

A bill has been brought in by the Master of the Rolls for regulating proceedings in Chancery. It is founded upon the report of the Commissioners, and it

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