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in their office ;" and the people are also enjoined" in the name of God" to declare if they know of any crime or impediment why the candidate should not be ordained. And all this where the service is conducted in a private chapel, and not at the usual hour at which the congregation are accustomed to assemble, and when no notice has been given in order that one may be specially convened. I admit that on particular occasions a special ordination, at the discretion of the bishop, may be expedient: but even this needs not be private; it may be performed openly at the usual time of service, (or, if at an unusual time, with proper notice, in order that a congregation may convene, as would not fail to be the case,) either at the cathedral or in a parochial church. But even if an occasional special ordination might with propriety be conducted somewhat privately, the same exception does not apply to the case of such an ordination as the regular Lent Ember-week Ordination, in a diocese like London. On the occasion above alluded to, about thirty candidates, I believe, were present. What an impressive and edifying

service would such an ordination have been at one of our large churches, several of which might be advantageously made use of in succession on such occasions, so as to interest the public at large in this solemn rite, and to engage their prayers and sympathies more earnestly in behalf of their ap pointed pastors. The clergy, the churchwardens, and the vestry and parish would in general think themselves privileged by the selection of their church on such an occasion.

I would again repeat, that I mean no disrespect to the revered prelate whose late ordination I have incidentally alluded to, and whose last most excellent Charge would of itself be sufficient to shew his anxiety for the honour of religion, and of the church over which he presides. His lordship's impressive advice to his clergy respecting the occasional services, applies equally to the service for ordination; the public as well as devout administration of which might do much towards impressing both the clergy and the laity with the sacred nature and infinite importance of the pastoral function.

CLERICUS.

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.

1. The History of the Inquisition of Spain, composed from original Documents. By D. J. A. LLORENTE, formerly Secretary of the Inquisition, abridged and translated from the original Work. 1 vol. 8vo. 15s. London. 1826. 2. Histoire abregèe de l'Inquisition d'Espagne [par M. Llorente]. Par L. GALLOIS. Troisième Edition. Paris. 1824.

AN historical disclosure of the secrets and enormities of the Inquisition of Spain, composed by a Spanish ecclesiastic, who continued,

nominally at least, to the end of his life an adherent of the Church of Rome, exhibits something so novel and extraordinary that, even from motives of mere curiosity, we might be strongly tempted not to overlook such a publication. Before, however, we proceed to notice the contents of this interesting work, it may be proper to furnish our readers with a brief account of its author. Such a notice will not only gratify curiosity, but throw light upon the degree of credit due to the author's report, and serve to expose the remnants of

that spirit of superstition, bigotry, at Logrogno was so ill-judging or and intolerance which is still at work among some professed Protestants, we are sorry to say, as well as among Roman Catholics, to counteract the best hopes and undermine the best interests of mankind.

Juan Antonio Llorente was born in the province of Arragon in 1756. He was the son of parents not affluent, but of an ancient and noble family. He received the clerical tonsure as early as the age of fourteen. In October 1773, he placed himself at Saragossa, for the purpose of studying law. During the vacation of 1775 he made his first visit to Madrid, where, with a strange versatility of mind, he became addicted to the drama, and actually produced a comedy. The ecclesiastics of Spain and Italy, unlike those of France, were accustomed to appear without scandal at the theatre. Ordained priest in 1779, at the age of twentythree, he soon afterwards evinced his natural good sense and liberality of mind, by an attempt to dissuade an aged priest from bestowing his property on the church, to the prejudice of his near relations. In 1781 we find Llorente an advocate at the supreme council of Castile, and in the following year vicar-general of the diocese of Calahorra. In a biographical memoir which he drew up concerning his own life, he mentions 1784 as the year when he made the important discovery that much of his boasted knowledge was but the offspring of early prepossessions, and had been derived from books replete with error; and when, with regard to both philosophy and theology, he entered upon a new course of thinking, principles, and conduct. The author from whom we derive our information justly remarks, that the philosophy of M. Llorente was the very reverse of that which has been recently inculcated by the eloquent Abbé de la Mennais, whom we introduced to our readers some time ago. In 1785 the tribunal of the Inquisition CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 303.

so unfortunate as to select Llorente for their commissary, little aware that they were cherishing one who in the end would do all in his power to betray the citadel into which he was thus incautiously admitted. In 1788 our author made himself known as a preacher of some eminence, under the countenance of the duchess of Sotorayor, who afterwards made him one of her executors and guardian to her son. In the beginning of the following year he was appointed secretary general to the Inquisition of the court; a post which he retained for two years, and his introduction to which was ultimately of great importance to the world, as it put him in possession of the archives of the holy office. At this time also, he was active in the diffusion of useful knowledge, under the encou ragement of Count Florida Blanca, a more able and enlightened statesman than Spain has often found at the head of her councils.

In 1791, Llorente was compelled, through the influence of court intrigue, to leave Madrid and retire to his canonry of Calahorra. While in this retirement, he discharged the duties of hospitality towards the French emigrant clergy, who were banished from their country by the troubles of the Revolution. He appears to have done his utmost to serve them out of his own very limited resources, and still more by the aid of many of his wealthy countrymen, whom he interested on their behalf. In 1793 the inquistor general, La Sierra, mirabile dictu! invited Llorente to co-operate with him in a reform of their horrid tribunal: but before he could carry his project into execution, this honest inquisitor was removed from his office. Others, however, were found to encourage the work, and Llorente procured his plan of reform to be presented to the noted Godoy, Prince of the Peace. His project struck at the vitals of the Inquisi

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so well calculated to ruin them. Among the papers of an ex-minister, Jovellanos, they had found the writings of Llorente on the Inquisition. They opened his correspondence at the post-office of Madrid, took copies of his letters, and then allowed them to reach their destination, in order to betray him into further confidence. Soon after this, he was sentenced to be despoiled of his functions of secretary and commissary of the holy office, to pay a fine of fifty ducats, and to endure a month's imprisonment in a monastery. This, for the Inquisition, was indeed an indulgent sentence; but it was attended with as much injustice as if it had been more severe; for he was left in ignorance of the particular charges brought against him. His disgrace lasted till 1805, during which interval he resided in his native province, employing his time in the composition of works of piety, learning, and public usefulness. At length, in 1806, he was recalled to Madrid, for the purpose of being employed about some historical researches wanted by the government. The king also gave him a canonry at Toledo, and appointed him master of the chapter schools of that cathedral. From this period, his career became more strictly political. On the invasion of Spain by Bonaparte, in 1808, he was appointed a member of the Spanish Convention which met at Bayonne. He attended it, and appears to have entered warmly into the French interest. In 1809 the Inquisition was abolished by King Joseph, or rather by his brother Napoleon; and Llorente was in

structed to compile a history of it from the archives, now fully placed at his command. For this work he had been collecting materials ever since 1789; and these, with what he now added, have produced a history, for the merits of which some have entitled him "the Suetonius of the Inquisition." This same year was entrusted to him the execution of a decree, abolishing gradually the monastic orders and establishments; an office which he performed with much forbearance and moderation. In the midst of these and other political occupations, he published (in Spain itself!) his first sketch of the horrors of the Spanish Inquisition. This work afterwards underwent a thorough revisal; and having been recomposed by him in French, with many alterations and improvements, it soon became known throughout Europe. Llorente continued to attach himself to the cause of Joseph Bonaparte; and, somewhat inconsistently with his past professions and exertions in the cause of civil and religious liberty, he attacked the Cortes in some bitter pamphlets. He appears to have entangled himself in the French interest, till he began to forget what was due to the rights and liberties of his native country. At length he shared the fate of his French associates, was driven with them across the Pyrenees, and arrived at Paris in March, 1814. The dominant party, under the weak and bigotted Ferdinand, now took vengeance on enemies; among whom Llorente was assuredly neither the least hated, nor the least formidable. He had to undergo the double penalty of perpetual exile and the confiscation of his property, part of which was a library he had left at Madrid, consisting of more than 8000 volumes, and containing many rare books and manuscripts. During the year 1814 he visited London; but, disliking our climate, returned to fix himself permanently at Paris. There, in a contest with

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M. de Coussergues, who affirmed that no auto da fé had taken place since 1680, Llorente proved that, between the dates of 1700 and 1808, no fewer than 1578 individuals had been sentenced to the

flames by the Spanish Inquisition. Upon the publication of his important work, he began to be persecuted, even in the French capital. He had to undergo a variety of mortifications, till his "Portraits politiques des Papes" filled up the measure of his guilt in the view of the bigotted party at Paris. In this work, he is said to have gone great lengths, and to have rather provoked hostility, which, of course, he readily met with. About the close of 1822, he was ordered to quit Paris in three days, and France with the least possible delay. He rapidly traversed the country, then covered with snow, and was not even permitted to rest for a short time at Bayonne. Upon entering his native country, however, he was received with flattering marks of public esteem. But these honours came too late; for, a few days after his arrival at Madrid, he died, worn out with anxiety and fatigue, at the age of sixty-six. His funeral was well attended, and was celebrated with much respect.

The history of the Spanish Inquisition in the French language, which was our author's own composition, and the mature result of his labours on the subject, is in four small, but thick, and rather closely printed volumes. It contains abundance of important matter; but the details are long, minute, and to the ordinary reader would be wearisome, especially in a day like the present, when reading, if not knowledge, is increased almost beyond the possibility of keeping up with its march. In short, there are few works which more require, and few, we may say, which better deserve a good abridgment. The character of the original work is, we think, thus justly described by Gallois, the French abbreviator :

"La fortune de ce livre est due, non

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pas au style, dépourvu de coloris et d'élegance, non pas à la disposition habile des profondeur des aperçus, à la finesse des matériaux, à l'énergie des portraits, a la observations; au contraire, les parties brillantes de l'art d'écrire manquent dans cet ouvrage : mais l'authenticité des titude, et la nouveauté des détails qu'il pièces importantes qu'il renferme, l'exacrévèle, la vérité frappante d'une narration sans ornemens, ont suffi pour donner tout. à-coup à ce livre le caractère de source historique; c'est à dire, qu'il n'est plus permis desormais de parler ni d'écrire sur Inquisition, sans consulter et sans citer le temoignage de son véridique annaliste." Pp. xxvi, xxvii.

The recommendation of the present history, as compared with former works on the same subject, is, we conceive, that it exhibits greater fulness and superior accuracy; and also that it brings down the annals of this tribunal to its temporary abolition in 1808, would we could say its final and complete destruction. But, because it still rears its gorgon head, it is necessary that the monster should be watched and attacked with persevering and unrelenting energy. The history of Philip Limborch has, we believe, hitherto enjoyed the greatest reputation of any work which has appeared on the subject. But, not to speak of his necessarily inferior means of information, it must be remembered that he died more than a century ago, and that consequently his work reaches far short of the period up to which Llorente has carried his annals.

We shall endeavour to present our readers with as much information on the subject of these volumes, as the scantiness of our limits will allow. In treating of the Spanish tribunal, it is at once mournful and consolatory to reflect that we are taking a view of the Inquisition under its very worst and most tremendous aspect. That scion of it which was grafted at Rome, under the immediate care and culture of the pope himself, might almost be termed mild and innoxious, when compared with the Upas tree which took root and flourished on the unhappy shores of Spain.

We do not here deem it necessary to enter upon the history of persecution in general; still less to vindicate the Scriptures of the New Testament from the charge of giving the smallest encouragement to its spirit. It is very worthy of notice, that the most severe temporal sentence enjoined by our Saviour, is that of excommunication, grounded on the right which every voluntary association justly assumes, of excluding from its number those who obstinately persist in refusing conformity to its laws. Let it then suffice to observe, that, through the infirmity and corruption of human nature, the spirit of persecution crept in with the attainment of power; and that, during the dark ages which followed the legal establishment of the Christian religion under Constantine, the discipline of the church gradually degenerated into bigotry, violence, and cruelty. This spirit naturally kept pace with the ambition and encroachments of the see of Rome. In a succession of centuries, however, the trial and punishment of those suspected of schism and heresy, constituted part of the prerogative of the bishops, in their respective dioceses, and came exclusively within their control. As a sample of the exercise of their power in Spain, it may be observed, that from the fourth council of Toledo, in the year 633, to the sixteenth in 693, various decrees were passed against infidels, idolaters, and heretics; but the penalties were confined to deprivation, confiscation of property, fines, imprisonment, and whipping. There appears to have been no torture inflicted, in the inquisitorial sense of the word; and the first instance (under Christian princes) of the actual burning of heretics seems not to have occurred before 1022, when, in consequence of a decree of the episcopal council at Orleans, one Stephen, confessor to Queen Constance, with others, underwent this punishment. Various eras have been laid down by historians as marking the commencement

of the inquisitorial power; but its actual commencement seems sufficiently ascertained by the period when the bishops were first deprived of their ancient and exclusive right of trying and punishing for heresy. Now this was not till the year 1203, when Pope Innocent III. laid the first stone of this Pandemonium, by giving a commission to two monks to preach against the Albigenses. By this act, a right of spiritual scrutiny was recognised independently of episcopal authority; and this is what constitutes the Inquisition, properly so called. The poor Albigenses were its earliest victims. At first it met with great opposition from the feudal chiefs; upon whom, however, Rome found means to practise her arts too successfully, by threatening to release their subjects from their oath of allegiance. The murder of the pope's legate, Peter de Castelnau, by some of the persecuted party, whom "oppression had made mad," gave a powerful impulse to the machine, now set in motion. This was in 1208. Dominic, originally a canon of the order of St. Augustine, was, with the fraternity which he founded, and which bore his name, foremost in this warfare. He it was who established a lay order which went by the name of the militia of Christ— a tremendous misnomer truly! and of which the individuals, as forming part of the inquisitorial family, were called familiars; a name sufficient, from the associations connected with it, to make the blood run cold. The Emperor Frederic II., at his coronation, gave the new tribunal the sanction of civil law. It had been introduced into France; but it never gained any firm footing in that country. A striking consequence, which immediately arose out of its establishment, was the decree prohibiting laymen from reading the Scriptures in the vulgar tongue; a decree first passed in 1229;-so comparatively modern is this innovation of Popery, which has perhaps

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