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النشر الإلكتروني

LIBRARY

BL2735

1830

INTRODUCTION

BY THE EDITOR.

NO writer probably has exposed the impositions practised upon mankind under e garb of religion with more effect than Thomas Paine; and no one has borne a greater share of obloquy from those who conceive their interests to be connected with continuance of the fraud. The pulpit and the press have teemed incessantly with De most virulent censures against him.-But patient and persevering, temperate and sm, he suffered no error to escape him, and the exposure of the blunders and absurdities of his adversaries is the only revenge which he has condescended to take for eir insolent abuse. His object was the happiness of man, and no calumny could vert him from his purpose. He conscientiously believed that human happiness deended on the belief of one God, and the practice of moral virtue; and that all relious faith beyond that led to persecution and misery. History gives an awful onfirmation of the justness of his opinion. Dr. Bellamy, author of "The history all religions," comes to this conclusion at last, that he was "well assured 3 at true religion consists neither in doctrines, nor opinions, but in uprightness of

art."

Religion has been most shamefully perverted, for sinister purposes, and made to consist in the belief of something supernatural and incomprehensible; and these inomprehensible beliefs are made to vary in different countries as may suit those who rannize over the minds and consciences of men. Thus, in some countries, he who ys he believes, that a certain man, in former times, was translated bodily to heaven, at another took a journey leisurely there in a fiery chariot, and that a third arrestI the course of the sun to give him more daylight for human slaughter, is denomincd a pious, good man. In other countries, a person to gain the same appellation, ust believe that Mahomet, in one night, took a ride to heaven upon his horse Bo ck, had a long conversation with the angel Gabriel, visited all the planets, and got bed with his wife before morning; and, upon another occasion, that he cut the moon in two parts, and carried the one half in his pocket to light his army. Whilst the contrary the philosopher, who, wishing to instruct and render his fellow men appy, honestly declares that he puts no faith in such idle stories, is considered an mpious, wicked man.

It is time that these prejudices, so disgraceful to the intelligence of the present age, ould be banished from the world, and it behoves all men of understanding and lents to lend a helping hand to effect it.

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"Prejudices," says Lequinio, an elegant French writer, in his work entitled, "Les ejuges Detruits," "arise out of ignorance and the want of reflection; these are ehasis on which the system of despotism is erected, and it is the master piece of t in a tyrant, to perpetuate the stupidity of a nation, in order to perpetuate its very and his own dominion. If the multitude knew how to think, would they be dupes to phantoms, ghosts, hobgoblins, spirits, &c. as they have been at all times d in all nations. What is nobility for example, to a man who thinks? What are those abstract beings, children of an exalted imagination, which have no existence it in vulgar credulity, and who cease to have being as soon as we cease to believe in m? The greatest, the most absurd, and the most foolish of all prejudices, is that y prejudice which induces men to believe that they are necessary for their hapness, and for the very existence of society."

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The same writer observes, that "while there are religions, we are told there will fanaticism, miracles, wars, knaves, and dupes. There are penitents, fanatics.

and hypocrites, in China and in Turkey, as well as in France ;* but there is not a religion, perhaps, in which there exists such a spirit of intolerance as in that profe ed by the christian priests, the author of which preached up toleration by his exame ple, as well as by his precepts."

Notwithstanding the intolerant spirit which prevails pretty universally among those, who call themselves true believers; notwithstanding the persecutions and in quisitorial tortures which take place daily, in a greater or less degree, throughout t christian world, there are many who, although they profess liberal opinions, are so indifferent in matters of religion, as to contend, that they ought not to be discussed. except by those whose peculiar province it is to teach them. Upon this principle, M Paine has been condemned by many, even of his friends, as though all men had res an equal stake at issue, and an equal right to express their opinions on so momers tous a subject. This sentiment exhibits an apathy to human suffering, in those whe express it, that is certainly not very flattering to their goodness of heart.

Were it not for the writings of philosophers, which, where they have been per mitted to be read, have in some measure softened the asperity of fanaticism, all chr tendom would, no doubt, now experience the same sufferings as are at this time in dured in Spain, under the government of the pious Ferdinand.

Even Bishop Watson, who wrote an "apology for the Bible," in answer to the "Age of Reason," disclaims the above illiberal sentiment;, graciously conceding the right of private judgment in matters of religion. He says, "it would give much uneasiness to be reported an enemy to free inquiry in religious matters, or as capable of being animated into any degree of personal malevolence against those who differ from me in opinion. On the contrary, I look upon the right of priva judgment, in every concern respecting God and ourselves, as superior to the contro of human authority."

It is with some reluctance that I make the following extract of a private letter, a copy of which has lately been inclosed to me by my correspondent at New-York but the contents are so much in point on this occasion, that I am induced to take the liberty. It was written by one of the most distinguished patriots of the America revolution, and who still remains a living witness of the services of those who esse tially contributed to that memorable event, in answer to a letter covering that of M T'aine to Andrew A. Dean; which will appear in this publication.-"I thank yo sir, for the inedited letter of Thomas Paine, which you have been so kind as to se me. I recognize in it the strong pen and dauntless mind of Common Sense, which among the numerous pamphlets written on the same occasion, so pre-eminently unite us in our revolutionary opposition.

"I return the two numbers of the periodical paper, as they appear to make part e a regular file. The language of these is too harsh, more calculated to irritate than convince or to persuade. A devoted friend, myself to freedom of religious inquiry an opinion, I am pleased to see others exercise the right without reproach or censur It is their ow and I respect their conclusions, however different from my own. reason, not mine, nor that of any other, which has been given them by their creator for the investigation of truth, and the evidences even of those truths which are presented to us as revealed by himself. Fanaticism, it is true, is not sparing or her invectives against those who refuse blindly to follow her dictates in abando ment of their own reason. For the use of this reason, however, every one is respons ble to the God who has planted it in his breast, as a light for his guidance, and then by which alone he will be judged. Yet why retort invectives? It is better always to set a good example than to follow a bad one."

The advice recommended to controvertists in the foregoing letter is certainly wo thy to be adopted. That recrimination, however, should some times be resorted t by those who advocate liberal opinions, is not surprising, when we take into conside ation the dictatorial stile in which, ignorance is cultivated by those who reap the a vantage of it, and the asperity with which those are attacked who attempt to u deceive mankind, and to discover to them their true interests, by pointing out the errors with which they are surrounded..

"Error," says St. Pierre, in his Indian Cottage, or Search after Truth, "is th work of man; it is always an evil. It is a false light which shines to lead us astra I cannot better compare it than to the glare of a fire which consumes the habitating it illumines. It is worthy of remark, that there is not a single moral or physical avil but has an error for its principle. Tyrannies, slavery and wars, are founded en

*The author's country.

political errors, nay even on sacred ones; for the tyrants who have propagated them have constantly derived them from the Divinity, or some virtue, to render them respected by their subjects.

It is, notwithstanding, very easy to distinguish error from truth. Truth is a natural light, which shines of itself throughout the whole earth, because it springs from God. Error is an artificial light, which needs to be fed incessantly, and which can never be universal, because it is nothing more than the work of man. Truth is useful to all men; error is profitable but to a few, and is hurtful to the generality, because individual interest, when it separates itself from it, is inimical to general interest.

Particular care should be taken not to confound fiction with error. Fiction is the veil of truth, whilst error is its phantom; and the former has been often invented to dissipate the latter. But, however innocent it may be in its principle, it becomes dangerous when it assumes the leading quality of error; that is to say, when it is turned to the particular profit of any set of men."

The christian religion answers exactly to this description of error, in every particular. It has been "fed incessantly" for upwards of eighteen hundred years; millions upon millions have been expended on its priests to propagate it, and it is still far from being universal. According to Bellamy's history of all Religions; of eight hundred

s of sols, which the world is supposed to contain, "one hundred and eighty-three muy are christians. One hundred and thirty millions are Mahometans. bullion are Jews, and four hundred and eighty-seven millions are Pagans. Is it this a convincing proof that christianity cannot be true? If it had been Arvinely inspired and God had actually visited this earth, for the purpose of teaching so mwa, would it not, long before this time, have extended throughout the world? in the work of man, and therefore can never become universal.

Bristers of the gospel, instead of teaching the principles of moral virtue, which mey them useful to their fellow men, are almost incessantly inculcating their Har doite dogmas: Wishing to make religion to consist in what it does the belief of unintelligible creeds, in order to render the subject complex, that these freeching might be thought the more necessary to explain it.

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rent portion of these ministers, moreover are mere boys'; who, after learning eek and Latin, set up the trade of preaching; and anathematise all who beleively bow to their dictation. It is lamentable to see decriped age hobsuch teachers in search of the road to heaven. One grain of common Weald save them all that trouble.

Although the injury, resulting from the heavy contributions required for the support ty, is not, perhaps, so great as that arising from the demoralizing effects of nonsensical creeds for moral virtue, yet these expenditures are serious

work lately published, relative to the consumption of wealth by the clergy, it has the clergy of Great Britain alone receive annually, the enormous sum of 3,& 300 pounds sterling, which is divided among 18,400 clergymen ; but very unBishop Watson gets, for his share of the booty, £7,000 a year, which one tot tad dinindey ens afficient to induce him to vindicate the christian religion, or any her equally protective.*

Lora J. Beresford, archbishop of Armagh, has above 63,000 acres of nd, of which more than 50,000 are arrable. His grace is a man in middle life, and of a healthy constitution. Suppose him to run his life against the leases let by his predecessor, he would have the power of ruining perhaps a hundred families, and obtaining for himself a rack rent of not less than £70,000 or £80,000 per annum.

The see of Dublin has upwards of 20,000 acres. Much of this being near the metropolis, must be considered as of extraordinary value.

But every thing is eclipsed by Derry; there we have 94,000 Irish acres appropriated to my lord the bishop-little short of 150,000 English acres! and should his

Dr. Franklin, in a letter to Dr. Price, (1780) speaking of the religious tests, incorporated into the constitution of Massachusetts, observes, "If christian preachers had continued to teach as Christ and his apostles did, without salaries, and as the Quakers now do, I imagine tests would never have existed; for I think they were invented not so much to secure religion itself as the emolument of it. When a religion is good, I conceive it will support itself; and when it does not support itself, and God does not take care to support it, so that its professors are obliged to call for the help of the civil power, 'tis a sign, I apprehend, of its being a bad one." Religious tests have been abrogated in Massachusetts by the late revision of its constitution

lordship at the beginning of his incumbency, have thought fit to run his life agains the tenants, he would now, at the expiration of twenty years, possess a larger ren roll than any subject in the world. Yet it was this very see which begged assistance towards repairing its own cathedral!

By the Almanach du clergy du France for 1823, it appears that there are fifty-four bishops and archbishops, already consecrated, out of the eighty France is to have There are, also, already, 35,676 priests in activity, exclusive of missionaries, and 50,93€ As the number the bishops judge necessary to complete the Army of the Church-2,03 are, moreover,. pensioned. Then, in the schools and at their different colleges, ther are 29,379 youths preparing for clerical duties. The revenue of the priests even now amounts to 28,000,000 francs, exclusive of sums destined to repair the churches, and other ecclesiastical services, which, amounting to 1,500,000 francs, will also pass through their hands, and exclusive of the sums collected by the missionaries, and con tributed by the communes, both of which are very considerable. From the same book, it appears that since 1802, the legacies and gifts received by the church, an held in Mortmain, amount to 13,388,554 francs, giving an annual revenue, after ab stracting from this sum many church ornaments, of 450,000 francs. Of this sum, n less than 2,332,554 francs were contributed within the last year.

There are in Rome, 19 cardinals, 27 bishops, 1450 priests, 1532 monks, 146-1 friars and 332 seminarists. The population of Rome, in 1821, without reckoning the Jews amounted to 146,000 souls.

Among the evils entailed upon mankind by establishing a religion that requires the renunciation of reason, hypocrisy holds a conspicuous place, as the most pernicious in its effects on society. It lowers the dignity of man; it checks the progress of the human mind, by smothering that frank and liberal communication of thought, whic leads to improvement; in short, it destroys all confidence among friends the most ir timate. If," says La Bruyere, "I marry an avaricious woman, she will take care of my money; if a gambler, she may win; if a learned woman, she may instruct me if a vixen, she will teach me patience; if a coquette, she will take pains to please but if I marry a hypocrite that affects to be religious, (une devote) what can I expec from her who tries to deceive even her God, and who almost deceives herself."

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The clergy are fond of attributing all the calamities, incident to human nature, to supernatural influence. Not, it is presumed, because they believe what they pretend but on account of the reputation it gives them for extraordinary piety. Thus in the sea-port towns even of the United States, which have been afflicted with yellow fever, I have observed, that some of their clergy considered it as a special judgment o God, arising from the passion of the people for threatrical exhibitions, &c.. And fast ings and prayers were resorted to, to appease the wrath of the Almighty. But these doctors of divinity, it is said, when attacked with yellow fever, or any other se rious complaint, immediately employ a physical doctor to cure them; which is suffi cient evidence that they do not believe their own doctrine; for it would be vain, and impious, to attempt to cure those whom God intended to destroy. Incalculable evil may result from the promulgation of this doctrine: Because those who have faith i it, may, as is the fact in some countries, refuse to take medicine in case of sickness and thereby sacrifice their own lives to folly and superstition.

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The Emperor of China, however, fully agrees with these christian doctors in his con ceptions of supernatural interference in passing events; and takes the same means to assuage the wrath of the Gods, as appears by the following statement of what took place in consequence of a hurricane and drought at Peking and Pe-che-le province. On the 13th of May, 1818, there was a violent hurricane at Peking, which produce much alarm among all sorts of people. The Emperor published an edict on the sub "it rained dust," ject, in which he declares he was extremely frightened. He and produced such profound darkness that nothing could be seen without a candle It was not so violent however as to produce any serious injury, and the apprehension of the people, and particularly of the Emperor, proceeded from the belief that suc phenomena are punishments for some mismanagement among the rulers of the country The Emperor gives a long list of the evil effects of improper measures in governing and exhorts his officers to join him in self-examination to find out the true cause of thi calamity. In another document he blames the imperial astronomers for not foreseeing and foretelling the hurricane, instead of flattering him as they had formerly done with the hope of tranquillity; and to calculate with accuracy the intentions of heaver He also despatched a messenger towards the south-east, where the storm arose, as he is confident there must have been some act of oppression committed in that direction

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