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that it cannot be inferred from the magistrate's being obliged to promote by force the true religion, that every magistrate is obliged to promote by force his own religion. And that for the same reason you had given before, more perplexed and obscurely, viz. "Because "there is this perpetual advantage on the side of the "true religion, that it may and ought to be believed on clear and solid grounds, such as will appear the more so, the more they are examined: whereas no "other religion can be believed so, but but upon such appearances only, as will not bear a just examina"tion.



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This would be an answer to what have said, if it were so that all magistrates saw the preponderancy of the grounds of belief, which are on the side of the true religion; but since it is not the grounds and reasons of a truth that are not seen, that do or can set the magistrate upon doing his duty in the case; but it is the persuasion of the mind, produced by such reasons and grounds as do affect it, that alone does, or is capable to determine the magistrate in the use of force, for performing of his duty; it necessarily follows, that if two magistrates have equally strong persuasions concerning the truth of their religions respectively, they must both be set on work thereby, or neither; for though one be of a false, and the other of the true religion; yet the principle of operation, that alone which they have to determine them, being equal in both, they must both be determined by it; unless it can be said, that one of them must act according to that principle, which alone can determine; and the other must act against it: that is, do what he cannot do; be determined to one thing, by what at the same time determines him to another. From which incapacity in magistrates to perform their duty by force to promote the true religion, I think it may justly be concluded, that to use force for the promoting any religion cannot be their duty.

You tell us, it is by the law of nature magistrates are obliged to promote the true religion by force. It must be owned, that if this be an obligation of the law of nature, very few magistrates overlook it; so forward


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are they to promote that religion by force which they take to be true. This being the case, I beseech you tell me what was Huaina Capac, emperor of Peru, obliged to do? Who, being persuaded of his duty to promote the true religion, was not yet within distance of knowing or so much as hearing of the christian religion, which really is the true (so far was he from a possibility to have his belief grounded upon the solid and clear proofs of the true religion.) Was he to promote the true religion by force? That he neither did nor could know any thing of; so that was morally impossible for him to do. Was he to sit still in the neglect of his duty incumbent on him? That is in effect to suppose it a duty and no duty at the same time. If, upon his not knowing which is the true religion, you allow it not his duty to promote it by force, the question is at an end: you and I are agreed, that it is not the magistrate's duty by force to promote the true religion. If you hold it in that case to be his duty; what remains for him to do, but to use force to promote that religion which he himself is strongly, nay, perhaps to the highest degree of firmness, persuaded is the true? Which is the granting what I contend for, that, if the magistrate be obliged to promote by force the true religion, it will thence follow, that he is obliged to promote by force that religion which he is persuaded is the true; since, as you will have it, force was given him to that end, and it is his duty to use it; and he hath nothing else to determine it to that end but his own persuasion. So that one of these two things must follow, either that in that case it ceases to be his duty, or else he must promote his own religion; choose you which you please *


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RTICLES (of the church of

England) the 13th argued from against force in religion, 397 the 17th argued from to the fame purpose, 521 Athanafius's creed, of the damnatory sentence in it, Atheism, charged by fome, upon all who differ from them, 414 is not to be tolerated by magiftrates.




ENTLEY (Dr.) his judgment of the cause of infidelity, 469 Briars. Vid. Thorns.


YARELESS of their falvation, fuch not to be neglected, 125


Caftration, as juftly to be ufed by the magiftrates to make chafte, as force to promote religion, SI Ceremonies, of the jews, were beg

garly elements, and much more those which are human, 157 Chriftians, fome fo called are of different religions, 55 Christianity, prevailing without force, a mark of its truth, 63, 64 Church, what it is, 13, 26 none born a member of it, 13 the power of it, 32 has no authority to perfe 34 magistrates have no power to enforce its decrees, 30, 33 is to determine indifferent circumftances of worship, 32 magiftrates have not power to prohibit in it what is lawful in the commonwealth, 34 Civil interefts, what they are, 10 the duty of magiftrates to fe cure them,


ibid. Clergy,

Clergy, their office fufficient, with-
out other employments, 172
Commonwealth, what it is, 10
end of it, not to force
men in religion, but to free them
from fuch force,
no neceffity to exclude
jews, &c. from it, to prevent the
feduction of christians, 235, &c.
Conformity (in religion) and not
conviction, is the end of penal
men may be brought toit,
without true religion, 339, 340
no ground to prefume it
is always upon conviction, 340
-whether it be from reafon
and conviction, or not, cannot be
certainly known,
339, 340
fome things required to it,
hard to be understood, 410, 411
Confideration, to force men to it
242, 243
conformists may need pu-
nishment to bring them to it, as
much as diffenters,
it is hard to understand,
whether penal laws are defigned
to bring men to it,
Vid. Examination.
Confcience, none can be faved by
acting contrary to it, though it
be erroneous,
laws contrary to it, must


be paffively fubmitted to, by pri-

vate men,


a man fins, by acting
contrary to it, though it be mif

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Creeds ought not to be impofed by
the magiftrate,


Diffenters if they must be punished,
it is hard to fet bounds how far,
262, &c.
the feverity formerly used
against them in England, 286-
how long it is pretended
they must be punished, 293, &c.
Divifions. Vid. Sets and Schifm.


VIDENCE, which may be fuf-
ficient for one, may not be fo
for another,
men are incompetent judges
what is fufficient to every one,
Examination (of religion) force no
proper means to lead to it, 96
many conformists, as well
as others, neglect it,
-none can be judiciallyprov-
ed to refuse it,

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to punish a whole party, as
neglecting it, is abfurd, 101
many are incapable of mak-
ing it strictly,
how far it is neglected, muft
be referred to the divine judg
want of it, only pretended
for punishing diffenters, 129, &c.
punifhment, for want of it,
would fall heavy upon many
the abfurdity of using force
to promote it,
97, &c.
none but God can judge
when 'tis fufficient,

299, &c.
the duty of magiftrates as
well as others,

179, 180

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ISSENTERS should not be


punished, to make them con-

fider, more than others, 96 FAITH, articles of it not to be

ought to be convinced a
church is true, before they con-
form to it,
to punish them for not con-
fidering, is to punish them with-
out law,

by human laws, 39
how it differs from knowledge
properly fo called,
Flood (of Noah) idolatry generally
prevailed not foon afterit,470,482
the true religion continued
above 2000 years after it,


. Force

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not lawful, tho' it might prove
fome way useful,

(in religion) ufually preju-
dices men against it,


ufed only to produce confor-
mity, not conviction,


not neceffary to make men
the use of it, for this end, is a
vain pretence,
is much more likely to bring
men to errour than truth, 76

employed to make people
confider, is neither useful nor
no warrant in scripture for
ufing it,

no less neceffary for conform-
ifts than nonconformists, 94, 96

the uncertainty of the pre-
tended end for which it should
be used,
none have right to use it, 112
fhould rather be used to drive
bad men out of the church, than
to bring any in,
thofe who plead for the mo-
derate use of it, fhould show what
boundsfhould be fet to it, 142,& c.
--if fome force may be used to
bring men to religion, more may
be ufed to advance them in it, 134

no fovereign has authority to
use it toward another, 163
not neceffary to promote reli-
gion, though religion be necef-
164, &c.
not likely to advance the true
religion, but the contrary, 168
may be avoided by outward
conformity alone,
168, 323
unreafonably used to make
men judge more fincerely for
177, 178
takes the care of men's fouls
from themfelves,

196, 197



Force, magiftrates not commiffion-
ed by the law of nature to use it,


use it,

how parents are authorized to
206, &c.
and mafters,
not using it, intimates not a
power given in vain,
the ufe of it makes not men
good, nor fecures God's blefling
to a nation,
221, 378
by the fame rule a leiler de-
gree of it is needful, a greater
may be fo,
no proper means to remove
concerning the end of its be-
ing used,
303, &c.
it is equally juft for one church
to use it as another,

the spiritual gain which fuf-
ferers may reap, though it be
mifapplied, a vain pretence, 367,
&c. 393
-kings being "nurfing fathers,"
&c. no good argument for ufing
its ufe, tho' defigned to bring
men to truth, may bring them to
378, &c. 399

is likely to lead far more into
errour than truth, 378, 399, 407
-no proof that ever it has done
-ufing it to make men confider
the use of it cannot promote
real holiness,
390, 391
if it brings any to confidera-
tion, it is only by accident, 392
it is most likely to prevail on
the loofe and carelefs,

its unfitnefs to bring men to
true religion, argued from the
13th article of our church, 397

may require extraordinary
ftrength to withstand it, when
ufed to bring to a falfe religion,

may be equally used by all
magiftrates who believe their re-
ligion true,

401, 402

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